Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. (s)kē̆p-, (s)kō̆p-, and (s)kā̆p-, (s)kē̆b(h)-, skob(h)-, and skā̆b(h)-   'to cut, shave, split with sharp tool'

Semantic Field(s): to Cut, to Split


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: capūn n.masc capon W7
gescieppan, gescōp, gescōpon, gesceapen vb.str.VI to shape, create LRC
sceab, sce(ab)b, scæb n.masc scab, scurf ASD/GED
sc(e)afan, scōf, scōfon, sc(e)afen vb.str to shave, scrape GED
sceaft n.masc shaft, pole W7
scieppan, scōp, scōpon, sceapen vb.str.VI to shape, form, create LRC
scieppend n.masc shaper, creator LRC
-scipe n.sfx -ship W7
Middle English: capon n capon W7
scab n scab W7
scaplen vb to scabble W7
sceptre n scepter W7
scope n scoop W7
shaft n shaft W7
shapen vb to shape, create W7
shaven vb to shave W7
-ship n.sfx -ship W7
skopper n scupper W7
English: apocope n loss of sounds/letters at end of word AHD/W7
bathyscaphe n navigable submersible deep-sea vessel AHD/W7
capon n castrated male chicken AHD/W7
comma n punctuation marking separation in sentence AHD/W7
Fellowship prop.n band of 9 heroes in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
fellowship n group of friends/comrades LRC
landscape n representation of natural inland scenery AHD/W7
partnership n state of being partners W7
sapsago n hard green cheese containing aromatic legume leaf AHD/W7
scab n dried blood on skin AHD/W7
scabble vb.trans to dress (stone) roughly AHD/W7
scabies n itch, mange, skin disease W7
scabrous adj knotty, difficult AHD/W7
scaphocephalic adj boat-shaped, re: long narrow skull deformity AHD
scaphoid adj navicular, boat-shaped AHD/W7
scaphopod n/adj tooth-shell mollusk; having foot fit for burrowing AHD
scapula n shoulder-blade bone AHD/W7
scepter n staff/baton of authority LRC
scoop n large ladle AHD/W7
scoop vb to dip, dig out, use scoop W7
scupper n bulwark opening where water on ship deck flows overboard AHD/W7
shab n low fellow AHD/W7
shabby adj faded/threadbare from wear AHD/W7
shaft n long handle of spear/similar weapon AHD/W7
shape vb to form, create AHD/W7
shave vb to remove hair/thin layer of skin AHD/W7
-ship n.sfx state, quality, condition AHD/W7
syncope n temporary suspension of circulation/respiration due to brain ischemia AHD/W7
British English: sceptre n scepter LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: -skip(e) n.sfx -ship ASD
Middle Dutch: schope n scoop W7
Dutch: kapoen n.masc capon ASD
landschap n landscape W7
-schap n.sfx -ship W7
schaven vb to shave GED
schub n scab, scale, shingle TLL
Old Saxon: skaft n shaft, spear ASD
skap n vessel KSW
skapo n dish KSW
-skepi n.sfx -ship ASD
Old Low German: scavan vb to shave, scrape ASD
Middle Low German: schaven vb to shave GED
schōve n scale GED
Old High German: scaft, scafe n shaft ASD/W7
-scaft n.sfx -ship W7
schaben, scaban, scapan vb.str to shave ASD/GED
scuob vb.pret shaved GED
scuoppa n.fem scab, scale, shingle GED
skaf n tray, vessel KDW
skaffo n scoop, dish KDW
skepfen vb to shape W7
Middle High German: kapūn n capon ASD
German: Kapaun n.masc capon ASD
Landschaft n.fem landscape LRC
Schabe n scab, itch ASD
schaben vb to shave, scrape, grate LRC
Schabziger n.masc sapsago W7
Schaft n.masc shaft LRC
Schuppe n scab, scale, shingle TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: kapūn n.masc capon ASD
skap n.neut character LRC
skapa, skapað vb to make, shape, create; determine LRC
Old Icelandic: skafa vb to shave GED
skōf vb.pret shaved GED
skōfir singed crusts (at bottom of pan) GED
Icelandic: skafa vb to shave, scrape ASD
skapt, skaft n shaft, haft (of an axe) ASD
Danish: kapun n.masc capon ASD
skab n scab ASD
skab n cupboard TLL
Old Swedish: skabbr n scab W7
Swedish: kapun n.masc capon ASD
skabb n scab ASD
skafferi n pantry TLL
skap n cupboard TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: skaban vb.str.VI to shear GED
Latin: capo, caponis n.masc capon W7
comma n.neut part of sentence W7
scaber, scabris adj rough, scurfy W7
scābī vb.pret shaved GED
scabiēs n.fem scurf, roughness; scab, scabies ELD/W7
scabō, scabere vb to shave, scrape, scratch GED
scapula n.fem.dim shoulder, scapula ELD/W7
scapus n.masc shaft, stalk W7
sceptrum n.neut scepter W7
Late Latin: apocope n apocope AHD
Old French: ceptre n scepter W7
Old North French: capon n.masc castrated male chicken W7
Middle French: escapler vb to dress timber W7
Lithuanian: skàbti vb to pluck GED
Latvian: skabît vb to hew off GED
Old Church Slavonic: skoblь n scraping-knife GED
Homeric Greek: κόπτω vb to cut, strike, hammer IEW
σκῆπτρον n.neut staff, scepter LRC
Greek: ἀποκοπή n.fem apocope, cutting off LS
ἀπο-κόπτω vb to cut/hew off LS
κόμμα n.neut clause, segment; coin stamp/impression LS
κόπτω vb to smite, strike, forge; cut/chop off LS
προσκόπτω vb to strike against LRC
σκάφη n.fem something dug/scooped out (e.g. tub, trough, skiff, light boat) LS
σκᾰφίδιον n.neut.dim small skiff LS
σκᾰφίς n.fem.dim pot, bowl, milk-pail; skiff, canoe LS
skaphoeidēs adj re: boat W7
σκάφος n.neut boat, ship LS
synkopē n.fem syncope, cutting short W7
synkoptein vb to cut short W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VI=class 6
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pret=preterite (tense)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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