Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. (s)keu-, (s)keu̯ə : (s)kū-   'to hide, wrap, cover'

Semantic Field(s): to Hide, Conceal, to Wind, Wrap, to Cover


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: cuarān n shoe GED
Welsh: curan n shoe GED
cwd n scrotum GED
Old English: bōc-hūs n.neut library, lit. book-house MEV
ge-scȳ n.neut shoes, footwear GED
hord n.masc/neut hoard, treasure ASD
hordian vb.wk to hoard ASD/GED
hosa n.masc hose, stocking; husk W7
hūs n.neut house LRC
hȳd n.fem hide, skin GED
hȳdan vb.wk to hide, conceal GED
māðum-hūs n.neut treasury, lit. treasure-house ASD
scēawian vb to look at GED
scēo, scō(h) n.masc shoe ASD/GED
scōg(e)an, scōde, scōd vb.wk to shoe ASD
scū(w)a n.masc shadow GED
Middle English: boc-hous n library, lit. book-house MEV
custodie n custody W7
hide n hide, animal skin W7
hord n hoard W7
hose n hose W7
hous n house W7
obscure adj obscure W7
reculen vb to recoil W7
schele n hut AHD
scum n scum W7
shoo n shoe W7
skimmen vb to skim W7
sky n sky W7
English: bascule n structure/apparatus with one end counterbalanced by another AHD/W7
chiaroscuro n pictorial representation as light/shade without color AHD/W7
choanocyte n collared/flagellated monadiform sponge cell AHD/CDC
culet n armor covering buttocks AHD/W7
culotte n divided skirt AHD/W7
custody n immediate charge/control exercised by person/authority AHD/W7
cutaneous adj re: skin AHD/W7
cuticle n skin, pellicle AHD/W7
cutin n outer epidermal wall of plant AHD/W7
cutis n skin, dermis AHD
-cyte n.sfx cell AHD/W7
cyt(o)- pfx cell AHD
Fallohide prop.n hobbit clan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hide, hid, hidden vb.str to cover, conceal GED
hide n raw/dressed skin of animal AHD/W7
histiocyte n phagocytic tissue cell AHD/W7
hoard n hidden/stored-up fund/supply AHD/W7
hoard vb to collect/lay up, amass/deposit in secret W2I
hose n cloth leg/foot covering AHD/W7
hosel n socket in golf clubhead where shaft attaches AHD
house n building used as family living quarters W7
huddle n densely packed group/crowd AHD
hut n shack, small simple temporary dwelling AHD/W7
kishke n boiled/roasted beef sausage AHD
lederhosen n knee-length leather trousers AHD/W7
Mathom-house prop.n weapon museum in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
meerschaum n hydrous magnesium silicate: light, fine white clay/mineral AHD/W7
obscure adj dark, dusky, with little/no light AHD/W7
pinocytosis n cell ingesting fluid through membrane AHD
recoil vb.intrans to fall/shrink back AHD/W7
scum n foul filmy covering on surface of liquid AHD/W7
shoe, sho(e)d vb.wk to furnish/put on shoes W7
shoe n outer covering for human foot W7
skewbald adj re: patches of white on non-black coat AHD
skim vb to clear off scum/floating matter AHD/W7
sky n firmament, atmosphere constituting arch/vault over earth AHD/W7
British English: shieling n shepherd's hut AHD
Scots English: shiel n hut AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hotha n testicle GED
hūd, hēd n hide, skin ASD
hūs n house ASD
skawia, skowia vb to look at, inspect ASD
skōch, scō n shoe ASD/GED
Middle Dutch: schum n scum W7
Dutch: huid n hide, skin TLL
huis n house LRC
hut n hut TLL
schoen n shoe TLL
schuim n scum, foam TLL
schuur n barn TLL
Old Saxon: gi-scōhi, gi-skohi n shoes, footwear ASD/GED
hord n.neut hoard, treasure ASD/GED
hūs n house ASD
skauwōn, scawōn vb to look at ASD/GED
skōh n shoe GED
Old Low German: scauwōn, scouwōn vb to look (at) ASD
scō n shoe ASD
Old High German: gi-scuohi n.str.neut shoes, footwear GED
hodo n.wk.masc testicle GED
hort n.str.neut hoard, treasure GED
hosa n leg covering W7
hūs n house ASD
hūt n.str.neut hide, skin GED
hutta n hut W7
scūm n scum, foam W7
scuoh n.str.neut shoe GED
scū(wo), scuwo n.str.masc shadow ASD/GED
skiura, skūra n barn KDW
skouwōn, scouwōn, sca(u)wōn vb.wk to look at ASD/GED
skugina n barn KDW
skūr n shelter, protection GED
Middle High German: gi-hurten vb.wk to hoard, collect treasure GED
hose n trousers W7
lederhose n leather trousers W7
schuoch n shoe GED
German: Haus n.neut house ASD
häuslich adj domestic TLL
Haut n.fem hide, skin ASD
Hode n.masc testicle LRC
horten vb to hoard LRC
Hosen trousers LRC
Hütte n.fem hut LRC
Lederhosen leather trousers W7
Meerschaum n.masc meerschaum W7
Schaum n.masc scum, foam, froth W7
Scheuer n.fem shed, barn, granary LRC
Scheune n barn TLL
Schuh n.masc shoe GED
Yiddish: kishke n kishke AHD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hauss n.masc skull LRC
hús n.neut house, room; [pl.] farm LRC
hús-frú n wife KNW
skáli n.masc shed; hall, sleeping-hall LRC
skúr n almond hull KNW
skȳ n sky, cloud W7
Old Icelandic: hodd n hoard, treasure GED
hūð n skin GED
skōr n shoe GED
skugg-sjā n.fem mirror GED
Icelandic: hodd n.neut hoard, treasure ASD
húð n hide, skin ASD
hús n house ASD
skór n shoe ASD
skuggi n shadow, spectre ASD
Danish: hus n house TLL
hustru n wife TLL
hytte n hut TLL
sko n shoe TLL
skugge n shadow TLL
skum n scum, foam TLL
sky n cloud TLL
Old Swedish: hydda vb.wk to conceal GED
Swedish: hustru n wife TLL
hydda n hut TLL
sko n shoe TLL
skugga n shadow TLL
skum n scum, foam TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: ga-skohi n shoes, footwear ASD
hūs n house ASD
huzd n.neut hoard, treasure GED
*skohs n.masc shoe, sandal GED
*skuggwa n.wk.masc mirror GED
Crimean Gothic: hus n house CGo
Latin: culus n.masc backside W7
custodia n.fem guarding W7
custos, custodis n.masc guardian W7
cuticula n.fem.dim cuticle, little skin W7
cutis n.fem cutis GED
obscūrus adj dark, covered, obscure GED
New Latin: cutaneus adj cutaneous W7
-cyta sfx -cyte W7
Old French: cul n.masc backside W7
reculer vb to step back W7
Middle French: obscur adj dark, obscure W7
French: bascule n.fem rocker W7
cul n.masc backside (vulgar) W7
culotte n.fem pants, breeches W7
écume n scum, foam TLL
Italian: chiaro adj clear, light W7
chiaroscuro n.masc clair-obscur, light and shade W7
oscuro adj dark, obscure W7
Lithuanian: skūrà n leather, bark of tree GED
Russian: kishka n kishke, intestine AHD
Homeric Greek: κεύθω vb to hide, conceal GED
κύστις n.fem bladder LRC
σκῦτος n.masc skin, hide, leather GED
Greek: κύσθος n.masc vulva GED
kytos n.masc hollow vessel W7
σκῡ́νια brows GED
Sanskrit: skunā́ti vb to cover GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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