Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: skeub-, skeubh-, skeug-   'to shove, move, shoot, throw'

Semantic Field(s): to Move, to Throw


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sc(e)oh adj shy IEW/ASD
sc(e)op n.masc scop W7/ASD
scofl n.fem shovel W7
scūfan, scēufan, scēofan vb.str to shove, thrust away W7/ASD
scyhhan vb to scare, frighten away IEW
Middle English: schey adj shy W7
scof n scoff W7
shovel n shovel W7
shoven vb to shove W7
English: scoff n gibe, expression of scorn/contempt/derision AHD/W7
scop n bard, poet AHD/W7
scuff vb to shuffle, walk without lifting feet AHD/W7
scuffle vb.intrans to struggle close together with disorder/confusion AHD/W7
shove vb to push along AHD/W7
shovel n broad scoop/blade with handle to lift/throw material AHD/W7
shovel vb to dig/lift/throw with shovel W7
shuffle vb to jumble, mix in confused mass AHD/W7
shy adj timid, fearful IEW
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: skof n scoff, mockery W7
skūva vb to shove, thrust ASD
Dutch: schoffel n.fem shovel ASD
schop n shovel TLL
Old High German: sc(h)of n scop W7/ASD
scioban, sciuban vb to shove, push W7/ASD
sciuhen vb to scare, frighten away W7
scūfla, scūvala n shovel W7/ASD
German: Schaufel n.fem shovel ASD
schaufeln vb to shovel LRC
scheuchen vb to scare, frighten away IEW
schieben vb to shove, push LRC
Schub n.masc shove, push, thrust LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: skop n railing, mocking ASD
skýfa vb.wk to shove, drive, push ASD
Danish: skof n scoff, jest W7
skovl n shovel TLL
Swedish: skuffa vb to shove, push W7
skyffel n shovel TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: *af-skiuban vb to shove/push away GED
skiuban vb to shove, thrust ASD
Old Slavic: skubati vb to tear W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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