Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. (s)keud-   'to shoot, throw'

Semantic Field(s): to Throw


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: scēata n.masc corner, angle; sheet (line), lower corner of sail W7
scēotan, scēat, scuton, scoten vb.str to shoot ASD/GED
scīte, scȳte, scēte n.fem sheet ASD/W7
scot n.neut shot, shooting W7
scutel, scytel n.masc dart, arrow, missile W7
scyte n.masc shooting W7
scytel, scyttel n.masc bar, bolt W7
scyttan vb.wk to shut, cause rapid movement ASD/W7
Middle English: scot n scot W7
shete n sheet W7
sheten vb to shoot W7
shittle n shuttle W7
shot n shot W7
shouten vb to shout W7
shuten vb to shoot W7
shutten vb to shut W7
wainscot n wainscot W7
English: schuss n straight high-speed ski run AHD/W7
scot n money assessed/paid AHD/W7
scout vb to mock, make fun of AHD/W7
sheet n (broad) piece of cloth AHD/W7
sheet n line, rope/chain controlling sail AHD/W7
shoot, shot vb.str to let fly, cause (missile) to fly AHD/W7
shoot n new (plant) growth AHD/W7
shot n act/result of shooting AHD/W7
shout vb to utter sudden loud cry AHD/W7
shut, shut vb to close door/opening AHD/W7
shuttle n device to pass/shoot thread of woof between threads of warp AHD/W7
slingshot n Y-shaped stick with elastic strap for flinging small stones AHD
wainscot n fine grade of oak for woodwork AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: sciāta, skiata vb to shoot ASD/GED
scot n missile; tribute, contribution ASD
sket n shooting ASD
sketta vb to stop, close ASD
Middle Dutch: wagenschot n wainscot W7
Dutch: schieten vb to shoot LRC
Old Saxon: sciotan vb to shoot GED
Old High German: scōzo n.masc lap, bosom ASD
scozo n.neut missile ASD
scuz n.str.masc speed; sudden blow W7
skiozzan, sciozan vb.str to shoot ASD/GED
Middle High German: schoz n tax, tribute ASD
German: schiessen vb to shoot LRC
Schuss n.masc shot W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: skjóta vb to shoot, throw LRC
skot n shot; contribution W7
skutill n bolt W7
skūti vb to taunt W7
Old Icelandic: skjōta vb to shoot GED
Icelandic: skauti n sheet, kerchief ASD
skjóta n to shoot; pay; push quickly ASD
skot n.neut shot, shooting; missile; contribution ASD
Danish: skyde vb to shoot LRC
Swedish: skjuta vb to shoot LRC
skott n shot TLL
East Germanic  
Crimean Gothic: *schieten, schietē vb to shoot (an arrow) CGo/GED
French: chute n.fem fall W7
Lithuanian: skudrùs adj quick GED
Old Church Slavonic: is-kydati vb to throw out GED
Sanskrit: códati vb to incite GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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