Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. (s)keud-   'to shoot, throw'

Semantic Field(s): to Throw


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: scēata n.masc corner, angle; sheet (line), lower corner of sail W7
scēotan, scēat, scuton, scoten vb.str to shoot GED/ASD
scīte, scȳte, scēte n.fem sheet W7/ASD
scot n.neut shot, shooting W7
scutel, scytel n.masc dart, arrow, missile W7
scyte n.masc shooting W7
scytel, scyttel n.masc bar, bolt W7
scyttan vb.wk to shut, cause rapid movement W7/ASD
Middle English: scot n scot W7
shete n sheet W7
sheten vb to shoot W7
shittle n shuttle W7
shot n shot W7
shouten vb to shout W7
shuten vb to shoot W7
shutten vb to shut W7
wainscot n wainscot W7
English: schuss n straight high-speed ski run AHD/W7
scot n money assessed/paid AHD/W7
scout vb to mock, make fun of AHD/W7
sheet n (broad) piece of cloth AHD/W7
sheet n line, rope/chain controlling sail AHD/W7
shoot, shot vb.str to let fly, cause (missile) to fly AHD/W7
shoot n new (plant) growth AHD/W7
shot n act/result of shooting AHD/W7
shout vb to utter sudden loud cry AHD/W7
shut, shut vb to close door/opening AHD/W7
shuttle n device to pass/shoot thread of woof between threads of warp AHD/W7
slingshot n Y-shaped stick with elastic strap for flinging small stones AHD
wainscot n fine grade of oak for woodwork AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: sciāta, skiata vb to shoot GED/ASD
scot n missile; tribute, contribution ASD
sket n shooting ASD
sketta vb to stop, close ASD
Middle Dutch: wagenschot n wainscot W7
Dutch: schieten vb to shoot LRC
Old Saxon: sciotan vb to shoot GED
Old High German: scōzo n.masc lap, bosom ASD
scozo n.neut missile ASD
scuz n.str.masc speed; sudden blow W7
skiozzan, sciozan vb.str to shoot GED/ASD
Middle High German: schoz n tax, tribute ASD
German: schiessen vb to shoot LRC
Schuss n.masc shot W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: skjóta vb to shoot, throw LRC
skot n shot; contribution W7
skutill n bolt W7
skūti vb to taunt W7
Old Icelandic: skjōta vb to shoot GED
Icelandic: skauti n sheet, kerchief ASD
skjóta n to shoot; pay; push quickly ASD
skot n.neut shot, shooting; missile; contribution ASD
Danish: skyde vb to shoot LRC
Swedish: skjuta vb to shoot LRC
skott n shot TLL
East Germanic  
Crimean Gothic: *schieten, schietē vb to shoot (an arrow) GED/CGo
French: chute n.fem fall W7
Lithuanian: skudrùs adj quick GED
Old Church Slavonic: is-kydati vb to throw out GED
Sanskrit: códati vb to incite GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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