Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: skot-   'shade, shadow, darkness'

Semantic Field(s): Shade, Shadow, Darkness


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sceadu n.fem shade, shadow ASD
Middle English: shade n shadde; shade W7
shadwe n shadow W7
English: scotia n concave molding AHD/W7
scotoma n blind/dark spot in visual field AHD/W7
scotophil adj growing/functioning best in darkness AHD
scotophobia n nyctophobia: fear of night/darkness AHD
shadde n shed AHD/W7
shade n comparative darkness/obscurity AHD/W7
shadow n shade within defined bounds AHD/W7
Shadowfax prop.n Gandalf's silver-gray horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Shadowmere prop.n reflecting lake in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
shed n slight structure for shelter/storage AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: schaduw n shadow TLL
Old Saxon: skado n shadow ASD
Old High German: scato n shadow ASD
German: Schatten n shadow TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: skadus n shadow ASD
Medieval Latin: scotoma, scotomatis n.fem dimness of vision W7
Homeric Greek: σκότιος adv in secret, in the dark LRC
σκότος n.masc gloom, darkness LRC
Greek: σκοτία n.fem darkness LRC
σκότιος adj dark, shadowy LRC
skotoun vb to darken W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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