Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: (s)kalo-s   '(type of large fish, e.g. whale)'

Semantic Field(s): Fish (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hwæl n.masc whale RPN
Middle English: whale n whale W7
English: narwhal n arctic cetacean AHD/W7
rorqual n large whalebone whale AHD/W7
squalene n acyclic hydrocarbon AHD/W7
whale n large aquatic mammal (order Cetacea) AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: walvisch n whale TLL
Old High German: (h)wal n whale RPN
German: Wahl n.masc whale LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hvalr n whale W7
nāhvalr n narwhal W7
reyþarhvalr n rorqual W7
Old Icelandic: hvalr n whale RPN
Icelandic: hvalr n whale ASD
nárhvalur n narwhal W7
Faeroese: hvalur n whale RPN
Norwegian: rørhval n rorqual W7
Danish: hval n whale RPN
narhval n narwhal W7
Swedish: narval n narwhal W7
val n whale RPN
Latin: squalus n.masc (kind of) sea fish RPN
French: rorqual n.masc rorqual W7
Old Prussian: kalis n shad RPN
Avestan: kara- n mythological fish RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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