Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: (s)lēg- : (s)ləg-, and (s)leg-   'weak, feeble, languid'

Semantic Field(s): Weak, Infirm


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sleac adj slack W7
Middle English: lachesse n laches W7
languishen vb to languish W7
lax adj lax W7
lessour n lessor W7
lusch adj lush; soft, tender W7
relaxen vb to relax, make less compact W7
reles n relish W7
relesen vb to release W7
slak adj slack W7
English: algolagnia n pleasure in inflicting/suffering pain AHD/W7
catalectic adj lacking syllable at end, ending in imperfect foot AHD/W7
laches n negligence in observance of duty/opportunity AHD/W7
lagomorph n gnawing mammal: rabbit, hare, pika AHD/W7
languid adj weak, drooping/flagging (as if) from exhaustion AHD/W7
languish vb.intrans to be/become weak/feeble/enervated AHD/W7
lax adj loose, open AHD/W7
lease vb.trans to let, grant by lease AHD/W7
lessor n one who conveys by lease AHD/W7
lush adj producing luxuriant foliage AHD/W7
relax vb to slacken, make less tense/rigid AHD/W7
release vb.trans to free from restraint/confinement/servitude AHD/W7
relish n characteristic taste/flavor AHD/W7
slack adj negligent, without care/dispatch/diligence AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: laken n sheet TLL
Old High German: lahhan n sheet, cloth, garment KDW
slah adj slack W7
German: Laken n sheet TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: līn-lak n linen sheet KNW
Danish: lagen n sheet TLL
Swedish: lakan n sheet TLL
Latin: langueo, languēre vb to be weak, languid W7
languidus adj languid W7
languo, languēre vb to languish W7
laxō, laxāre vb to loosen, slacken W7
laxus adj lax W7
relaxō, relaxāre vb to relax, loosen W7
Vulgar Latin: langueo, languere vb to languish W7
Late Latin: catalecticus adj verse with missing syllable(s) W7
New Latin: algolagnia n.fem algolagnia W7
Old French: laissier vb to leave, let go W7
reles n.masc something left behind, release W7
relessier vb to relax W7
Anglo-French: lesser vb to lease W7
lessour n.masc lessor, landlord W7
Middle French: languide adj languishing W7
languir vb to languish W7
laschesse n.fem cowardice; lack of scrupulousness re: deadlines W7
Homeric Greek: λαγωός n.masc hare LRC
λήγω vb to stop, cease, abate LRC
Attic: λαγώς n.masc hare LRC
Greek: κατα-λήγω vb to leave off LRC
katalēktikos adj verse with missing syllable(s) W7
lagneia n.fem lust W7
lagnos adj lustful AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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