Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: slenk-, sleng-   'to turn, wind; creep, slink'

Semantic Field(s): to Turn, to Wind, Wrap, to Creep, Crawl


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: slincan vb.str to slink, creep W7/ASD
slingan vb.str to wind, worm, twist W7/ASD
Middle English: slingen vb to sling W7
slinken vb to slink W7
English: lumbricoid n creature resembling earthworm AHD/W7
sling, slung vb.str.trans to fling, cast forcibly AHD/W7
slingshot n Y-shaped stick with elastic strap for flinging small stones AHD
slink, slunk vb.str.intrans to go/move furtively/stealthily AHD/W7
Slinker prop.n a.k.a. Gollum in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Dutch: slang n snake TLL
Old Saxon: slango n snake KSW
Old High German: slango n snake KDW
slīhhan vb to slink, creep, crawl ASD
slingan vb to wind, worm, twist ASD
German: Schlange n snake TLL
schlingen vb to wind, twist, weave ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: slyngva vb to wind ASD
Danish: slange n snake TLL
Old Swedish: slinka vb to slink, creep IEW
Latin: lumbricus n.masc earthworm W7
Lithuanian: sliñkti, sleñka, sliñko vb to pass, slip LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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