Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: (s)lī- : sləi-, or slōi-, slī-u̯o-   'livid, bluish'

Semantic Field(s): Blue


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: slāh, slā(g) n.fem sloe IEW/ASD
slāh-hyll n.masc/fem hill where sloe grows ASD
slāh-þorn n.masc blackthorn, lit. sloe-thorn ASD
Middle English: lavendre n lavender W7
slo n sloe W7
Slocombe prop.n Slocum LRC
English: lavender n Mediterranean mint AHD/W7
livid adj black-and-blue, discolored by bruising AHD/W7
slivovitz n sloe/plum brandy AHD/W7
Slocum prop.n surname, lit. Plum Valley LRC
sloe n blackthorn: wild plum AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: slē(h)a n sloe ASD
German: Lavendel n.masc lavender LRC
Schlehe n sloe ASD
North Germanic  
Danish: slaaen n sloe ASD
slaaentorn n blackthorn, lit. sloe-thorn ASD
Latin: liveo, livēre vb to be blue W7
lividus adj pale, blue, jealous W7
Medieval Latin: lavandula n.fem lavender W7
Anglo-French: lavendre n.fem lavender W7
French: livide adj pale W7
Serbo-Croatian: sl(j)iva n sloe, plum W7
sljivovica n slivovitz W7
Russian: sliva n sloe, plum W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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