Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. (s)mei-, smeu-   'to smile'

Semantic Field(s): to Laugh, Smile


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sme(a)rcian vb.wk to smirk, smile ASD/W7
smerian vb to laugh W7
Middle English: mervel n marvel W7
miracle n miracle W7
mirour n mirror W7
smilen vb to smile W7
smirken vb to smirk W7
English: admire vb.trans to marvel at AHD/W7
comity n courteous code of behavior AHD/W7
marvel n something causing wonder/astonishment AHD/W7
miracle n extraordinary event manifesting God's supernatural work AHD/W7
mirage n optical reflection from heated air near ground AHD/W7
mirror n smooth/polished substance (e.g. glass) that reflects images AHD/W7
Mirrormere prop.n glassy lake in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
smile vb to show pleasure/amusement via facial expression AHD/W7
smirk vb.intrans to simper, smile in affected manner AHD/W7
Old Latin: cosmis adj courteous W7
Latin: admiror, admirari vb to admire W7
comis adj courteous W7
comitas, comitatis n.fem courtesy, friendliness W7
mirabilia marvels W7
mirabilis adj wonderful W7
miraculum n.neut marvel W7
mīror, mīrārī vb.dep to wonder W7
Old French: amirer vb to admire AHD
merveille n.fem marvel W7
miracle n.masc miracle W7
mirer vb to look at oneself W7
mirour n.masc mirror W7
Middle French: admirer vb to admire W7
French: admirer vb to admire AHD
mirage n.masc mirage W7
mirer vb to see in a mirror W7
Latvian: smieties, smejos, smējos vb to laugh LRC
Sanskrit: smayate vb to smile W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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