Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: smeit-, smit-   'to throw'

Semantic Field(s): to Throw


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hlāfmæsse, hlāfmesse n.fem Lammas, lit. loaf-mass ASD/W7
mæsse, messe n.fem mass ASD/W7
Middle English: admitten vb to admit W7
Christemasse prop.n Christmas W7
committen vb to commit W7
compromise n compromise W7
Lammasse prop.n Lammas W7
martinmasse n Martinmas W7
mass(e) n mass W7
mes n mess W7
message n message W7
mychelmesse n Michaelmas W7
omitten vb to omit W7
premisse n premise W7
promis n promise W7
remitten vb to remit W7
submitten vb to submit W7
surmisen vb to surmise, accuse W7
transmitten vb to transmit W7
English: admit vb to permit, allow scope for AHD/W7
Christmas prop.n December 25, lit. Christ mass AHD/W7
commit vb to entrust, put into charge/trust AHD/W7
compromise n process/result of settlement by consent/arbitration AHD/W7
demit vb to dismiss AHD/W7
dismiss vb.trans to cause/permit to leave AHD/W7
emit vb.trans to give/throw off/out (e.g. light) AHD/W7
intermit vb to discontinue, cause to cease (at intervals) AHD/W7
intromit vb.trans to insert, send/put in AHD/W7
Lammas prop.n mass on August 1 AHD/W7
Martinmas prop.n November 11, lit. Martin's mass AHD/W7
mass n sequence of prayers/ceremonies forming eucharistic office AHD/W7
mess n quantity of food AHD/W7
message n communication in speech/writing/signals AHD/W7
Michaelmas prop.n archangel Michael's mass (September 29) LRC
missile adj able to be thrown/projected to strike distant target AHD/W7
mission n act/instance of sending AHD/W7
missive n letter, written message AHD
omit vb.trans to leave out/unmentioned AHD/W7
permit vb to consent to expressly/formally AHD/W7
premise n proposition antecedently supposed/proved as basis of argument/inference AHD/W7
pretermit vb.trans to omit, let pass without notice/mention AHD/W7
promise n declaration re: doing something AHD/W7
remit vb to release from guilt/penalty AHD/W7
submit vb to yield to authority/governance AHD/W7
surmise vb.trans to guess, infer/imagine on slight grounds AHD/W7
transmit vb to forward, send/transfer to another person/place AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: messa, missa n mass ASD
Middle High German: messe n mass ASD
German: Messe n mass ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: messa n mass ASD
Latin: admitto, admittere vb to send, let loose W7
committere vb.ptc to connect, entrust W7
compromissum n.neut mutual agreement W7
compromissus vb.ptc mutually agreed W7
compromitto, compromittere vb to promise mutually W7
dimissus vb.ptc sent forth/away W7
dimitto, dimittere vb to send forth/away W7
ēmittō, ēmittere, ēmīsī, ēmīssum vb to send out LRC
intermitto, intermittere vb to intermit W7
intromitto, intromittere vb to send/allow in W7
missa vb.ptc.fem dismissed, sent away W7
missilis adj possible to throw W7
missio n.fem act of sending W7
missus vb.ptc sent away W7
mittō, mittere, mīsī, missum vb to send, give, let go LRC
omitto, omittere vb to omit, forget W7
permitto, permittere vb to permit, let through W7
praemissus vb.ptc sent first/ahead W7
praemitto, praemittere vb to place ahead W7
praeter adv/prep beyond, past, by W7
praetermitto, praetermittere vb to omit, pass by W7
promissum n.neut promise W7
promissus vb.ptc promised W7
promitto, promittere vb to promise, send forth W7
remitto, remittere vb to send back W7
submitto, submittere vb to lower, submit W7
supermitto, supermittere vb to throw on W7
transmitto, transmittere vb to transmit W7
Vulgar Latin: messa n.fem dismissal at end of religious service W7
Late Latin: missus n.masc course at meal W7
missus vb.ptc sent W7
Medieval Latin: missaticum n.neut message W7
New Latin: missio, missionis n.fem religious mission W7
Old French: a(d)mettre vb to admit AHD
mes n.masc course at meal W7
message n.masc message W7
Middle French: compromis n.masc compromise W7
demettre vb to dismiss W7
prémisse n.fem assumption in argument W7
surmetre vb to surmise, throw on W7
surmis vb.ptc surmised, thrown on W7
Albanian: mision n.masc mission LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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