Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: (s)mer-   'to mourn, remember, think of, care for'

Semantic Field(s): to Remember, to Think, Reflect, Care (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gemimor vb.past.ptc known GED
mām(o)rian vb.wk to think out, plan GED
mimorian vb to remember W7
murnan vb.wk to mourn, sorrow for ASD/GED
Middle English: demeoren vb to linger W7
demerit n demerit W7
memorable adj memorable W7
memorandum n memorandum W7
memorie n memory W7
merit n merit W7
mournen vb to mourn W7
remembren vb to remember W7
English: allomerism n chemical without crystalline variability AHD/W7
commemorate vb.trans to call to remembrance AHD/W7
demerit n offense AHD/W7
demur vb.intrans to interpose an objection AHD/W7
dimer n two identical molecules combined AHD
emeritus adj holding (after retirement) same (honorary) title AHD/W7
isomer n one of several chemicals with same elements but different structure AHD/W2I
memorable adj notable, worth remembering AHD/W7
memorandum n informal record AHD/W7
memory n power/process of recalling/reproducing what was learned AHD/W7
-mere n.sfx part, segment, partition AHD/W7
meretricious adj re: prostitute AHD/W7
meristem n formative plant cells capable of indefinite division AHD/W7
merit n reward/punishment due AHD/W7
merit vb to earn, deserve, be worthy of W7
-merous adj.sfx having as part(s) AHD/W7
Mimir prop.n primal deity renowned for knowledge/wisdom (Norse mythology) LRC
monomer n simple unpolymerized chemical compound AHD/W7
mora n minimal unit of measure: duration of average short syllable AHD/W7
moratorium n authorized delay in performance of obligation AHD/W7
moratory adj re: delay in performance of obligation AHD/W7
mourn vb to feel/express grief/sorrow AHD/W7
polymer n chemical compound of repeating structural units W7
remember vb to bring to mind, think of again AHD/W7
remora n fish with suction disk on head AHD/W7
trimer n three identical molecules combined AHD
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: mornian vb to mourn, be sorrowful GED
mornon, mornōn vb to mourn, be sorrowful ASD/GED
Old High German: mornēn vb.wk to mourn, be sorrowful GED
North Germanic  
Old Norse: Mīmir prop.n Mimir: decapitated Norse god whose head recites secret knowledge to Odin W7
Old Icelandic: Mīmir prop.n Mimir GED
Icelandic: morna vb to mourn ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *maurnan vb.wk.III to worry, concern oneself GED
Latin: commemoratus vb.ptc reminded of W7
commemoro, commemorāre vb to commemorate W7
demoror, demorāri vb.dep to stop, hinder, delay CLD
emerior, emereri vb to serve out one's term W7
emeritus vb.ptc who has served W7
immemor, immemoris adj heedless LRC
memini vb.defc remember LRC
memor, memoris adj mindful (of), remembering GED
memorabilis adj memorable W7
memorandus ger to be remembered W7
memoria, memoriae n.fem memory, remembrance, recollection GED
memorō, memorāre, memorāvī, memorātus vb to tell, relate, mention LRC
mereo, merēre vb to earn, serve, deserve W7
mereor, mereri vb.dep to serve with merit W7
meretricius adj of a prostitute W7
meretrix, meretricis n.fem prostitute W7
meritum n.neut merit W7
meritus vb.ptc merited W7
mora n.fem delay W7
moratus vb.ptc lingering W7
moror, morari vb.dep to delay, linger W7
remora n.fem delay W7
remoror, remorari vb.dep to delay W7
Late Latin: memoror, memorāri vb.dep to be mindful of W7
moratorium n.neut delay W7
moratorius adj dilatory W7
rememor, rememorāri vb.dep to remember W7
New Latin: -merus sfx part, -merous W7
moratorium n.neut legally authorized delay W7
morula n.fem brief delay W7
Old French: demorer vb to linger W7
merite n.masc merit W7
Middle French: demerite n.masc demerit W7
mémoire n.fem memory W7
mérite n.masc merit W7
remembrer vb to remember W7
French: -mère sfx -mere W7
moratoire n.masc moratory W7
Lithuanian: merėti vb to concern oneself GED
Albanian: meritoj vb to merit LRC
Greek: διαμερίζω vb to cleave LRC
μαρτυρέω vb to bear witness LRC
μαρτυρία n.fem testimony LRC
μάρτυρος n.gen of the witness GED
μάρτυς n witness GED
-merēs sfx of parts, partially W7
merizein vb to divide W7
μέριμνα n.fem care, anxious thought LRC
meristos adj divided W7
μέρμερος adj causing much care, grief GED
mermēra n.fem care W7
μέρος n.neut part LRC
Armenian: mormok' n care, discontent GED
Avestan: mi-mara- adj mindful GED
(-š)mar- vb to notice, be mindful of GED
Sanskrit: smará- n remembrance GED
smárati vb to remember, long for GED
smṛti- n recollection GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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