Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: snā-, snə-(t-), snāu-, sn-eu-, sn-et-   'to flow, swim; damp'

Semantic Field(s): to Flow, to Swim, Wet, Damp


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: snyflan vb to snivel W7
Middle English: nurishen vb to nourish W7
nurse n nurse W7
nurture n nurture W7
snacchen vb to snap, seize W7
sniffen vb to sniff W7
snivelen vb to snivel W7
snubben vb to snub W7
snute n snout W7
English: chersonese n peninsula AHD/W7
naiad n water-nymph (Greek mythology) AHD/W7
natant adj swimming/floating in water AHD/W7
natation n act/art of swimming AHD
natatorial adj re: swimming AHD
natatorium n place for swimming AHD/W7
nekton n free-swimming aquatic animal AHD/W7
neuston n minute/microscopic organisms inhabiting water surface AHD
nourish vb.trans to rear, nurture AHD/W7
nurse n woman who suckles infant not her own AHD/W7
nurse vb to nourish, suckle at breast AHD/W7
nurture n training, upbringing AHD/W7
nutrient adj furnishing nourishment AHD/W7
nutriment n something that nourishes/promotes growth AHD/W7
nutrition n nourishing, being nourished AHD/W7
nutritious adj nourishing AHD/W7
nutritive adj nutritious AHD
schnauzer n (German breed of) rough-haired terrier AHD/W7
schnoz human nose AHD
snap n abrupt closure, biting/snapping W7
snap vb to suddenly close jaws, seize sharply in mouth AHD/W7
snatch vb to seize suddenly AHD/W7
sniff vb to draw air audibly into nose AHD/W7
sniffle vb.freq to snuffle, sniff repeatedly W7
snip n bit, fragment, small snipped-off piece AHD/W7
snip vb to cut (off) with shears/scissors AHD/W7
snivel vb.intrans to snuffle, run at the nose AHD/W7
snoop vb.intrans to look/pry in sneaking/meddlesome manner AHD/W7
snot n.vulg phlegm, nasal mucus AHD
snout n long projecting nose (e.g. of swine) AHD/W7
snub vb.trans to rebuke, check/stop with cutting retort AHD/W7
snuff vb to draw forcibly through/into nostrils AHD/W7
snuffle vb to sniff/snuff audibly/repeatedly AHD/W7
supernatant adj floating on water surface AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: snacken vb to snap at W7
Dutch: snappen vb to snap W7
snoepen vb to buy/eat on the sly W7
snuffelen vb to snuffle W7
snuffen vb to sniff, snuff W7
Low German: snappen vb to snap W7
Middle High German: snappen vb to snap W7
German: Nekton n nekton W7
Schnappen n.neut snap LRC
schnappen vb to snap, catch, snatch LRC
Schnauze n.fem snout, muzzle W7
Schnauzer n.neut schnauzer W7
schnüffeln vb to snuffle LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: snubba vb to scold W7
Icelandic: sneypa vb to scold W7
Latin: chersonesus n.masc chersonese W7
nāias, nāiadis n.fem naiad W7
natans, natantis vb.ptc swimming W7
natatus vb.ptc having swam W7
nato, natare vb.freq to swim W7
no, nāre vb to swim W7
nutricius adj nourishing W7
nutriens, nutrientis vb.pres.ptc nourishing W7
nutrimentum n.neut nutriment, nourishment W7
nūtrio, nūtrire vb to nourish, suckle W7
nutritus vb.ptc nourished, suckled W7
nūtrix, nūtrīcis n.fem nurse W7
supernatans, supernatantis vb.pres.ptc swimming over W7
supernato, supernatare vb to float W7
Late Latin: natatorium n.neut place for swimming W7
nutritio, nutritionis n.fem nutrition W7
nutritura n.fem act of nursing W7
Old French: norrir vb to nourish, suckle W7
nurice n.fem nurse W7
Middle French: norriture n.fem food, nourishment W7
nutrition n.fem nutrition W7
French: naïade n.fem naiad W7
Homeric Greek: νάω vb to flow LS
νέω vb to swim, float LS
νῆσος n.masc island LRC
νήχω vb to swim LRC
νότιος adj wet, damp, moist LRC
χέρσος n shore, dry land LRC
Greek: νᾱϊάς n.fem naiad: river-nymph LS
nēktos adj swimming W7
χερσό-νησος n.fem chersonese LS


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pres=present (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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