Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: sneigh-   'to snow; snow'

Semantic Field(s): Snow (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: snechti snow LRC
snige n rain, drop LRC
snigid vb to snow, precipitate LRC
Welsh: nyf n snow LRC
nyfio vb to snow LRC
Old English: snāw n.masc snow W7
snīwan vb.wk to snow ASD
Middle English: snow n snow W7
English: neve n partially compacted granular snow at glacier's upper end AHD/W7
nival adj snowy, in/under snow AHD/CDC
niveous adj snowy, resembling snow AHD
snow n (small white crystals of) frozen water vapor AHD/W7
snow vb to fall as/like snow W7
Snowbourn prop.n Rohan river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Snowmane prop.n Theoden's horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Dutch: sneew n snow TLL
Old Saxon: snēu n snow ASD
Old High German: snēo n snow W7
snīwan vb to snow LRC
German: Schnee n.masc snow LRC
schneien vb to snow LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: snœr, snjār, snjōr n snow LRC
Icelandic: snivinn vb to snow ASD
snjór n snow ASD
Danish: sne n snow TLL
Swedish: snö n snow TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: snáiws n.str.masc snow LRC
Latin: nivit vb.impers to snow LRC
nix, nivis n.fem snow W7
Old Prussian: snaygis n snow LRC
Lithuanian: sniẽgas n snow LRC
sniẽgti vb to snow LRC
Latvian: snìegs n snow LRC
Old Church Slavonic: snĕgŭ n snow LRC
Russian: snég n snow LRC
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: νίφα n.acc snow LRC
Homeric Greek: νῐφάς n.fem ice, snow(flake) LRC
Avestan: snaēžaiti vb to snow LRC
Prakrit: siṇeha n snow LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
impers=impersonal (verb)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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