Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: so(s), sā   '(nom. sg. demonstrative stem: he, she)'

Semantic Field(s): Human Being


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: se, sēo, sīo def/ the, that; he, she LRC
Middle English: she she W7
English: she that female one AHD/W7
Shelob prop.n spider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Dutch: ze they, them [atonic form] TLL
ze she [atonic form] TLL
zij they, them TLL
zij she TLL
Old High German: si, sī she RPN
German: Sie you (polite) TLL
sie they, them TLL
sie she, her LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: sá dem.pron that LRC
Old Icelandic: sú dem.pron.fem that RPN
East Germanic  
Gothic: sa def/ the, this, that; he, she, it LRC
sō dem.pron.fem this, that, she RPN
Old Latin: sam dem.pron.fem her RPN
sās them RPN
sōs them RPN
sum dem.pron.masc him RPN
Albanian: ai, ajo pron he, she; it, that IEW
ky, kjo dem.pron this IEW
Greek: ἡ def/ the, this, that RPN
ὁ def/ the, this, that LRC
Hittite: ša conn.pcl this, that RPN
-še enc.dem.pron this, that RPN
Avestan: ha- dem.stem this, that RPN
Sanskrit: sá dem.masc this, that RPN
sā, sī dem.fem this, that RPN
Tocharian B: sā(-) dem.fem this, that RPN
se(-) dem.masc this, that RPN
Tocharian A: sa- dem.masc this, that RPN
sā- dem.fem this, that RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)
2=2nd person
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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