Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: so(s), sā   '(nom. sg. demonstrative stem: he, she)'

Semantic Field(s): Human Being

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: se, sēo, sīo def/dem.art/pron the, that; he, she LRC
Middle English: she pron.3.sg.fem she W7
English: she pron.3.sg.fem that female one AHD/W7
Shelob prop.n spider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Dutch: ze pron.3.pl.nom/acc they, them [atonic form] TLL
ze pron.3.sg.fem.nom she [atonic form] TLL
zij pron.3.pl.nom/acc they, them TLL
zij pron.3.sg.fem.nom she TLL
Old High German: si, sī pron.3.sg.fem she RPN
German: Sie pron.2.sg/pl.nom/acc you (polite) TLL
sie pron.3.pl.nom/acc they, them TLL
sie pron.3.sg.fem.nom/acc she, her LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: sá dem.pron that LRC
Old Icelandic: sú dem.pron.fem that RPN
East Germanic  
Gothic: sa def/dem.art/pron the, this, that; he, she, it LRC
sō dem.pron.fem this, that, she RPN
Italic  
Old Latin: sam dem.pron.fem her RPN
sās dem.pron.fem.pl them RPN
sōs dem.pron.masc.pl them RPN
sum dem.pron.masc him RPN
Albanian  
Albanian: ai, ajo pron he, she; it, that IEW
ky, kjo dem.pron this IEW
Hellenic  
Greek: ἡ def/dem.art.fem the, this, that RPN
ὁ def/dem.art.masc the, this, that LRC
Anatolian  
Hittite: ša conn.pcl this, that RPN
-še enc.dem.pron this, that RPN
Iranian  
Avestan: ha- dem.stem this, that RPN
Indic  
Sanskrit: sá dem.masc this, that RPN
sā, sī dem.fem this, that RPN
Tocharian  
Tocharian B: sā(-) dem.fem this, that RPN
se(-) dem.masc this, that RPN
Tocharian A: sa- dem.masc this, that RPN
sā- dem.fem this, that RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
art=article/determiner
conn=connective
def=definite
dem=demonstrative
enc=enclitic
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
nom=nominative (case)
pcl=particle
pl=plural (number)
pron=pronoun
prop=proper
sg=singular (number)
stem=stem
2=2nd person
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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