Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: solo-, sol(e)u̯o-   'whole, well-kept, salubrious'

Semantic Field(s): Whole


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: sage n sage W7
saluten vb to salute W7
sauf prep save W7
saven vb to save W7
solemne adj solemn W7
soliciten vb to disturb, take charge of W7
solide adj solid W7
soudier n soldier W7
soudure n solder W7
English: catholic adj universal, comprehensive AHD/W7
consolidate vb to unite, join together AHD/W7
hol(o)- pfx whole, entire AHD
insouciance n nonchalance, lighthearted unconcern W7
insouciant adj nonchalant, re: insouciance AHD
safe adj unhurt, freed from harm/risk AHD/W7
sage n mint (herb) AHD/W7
salubrious adj healthful, beneficial, re: health/well-being AHD/W7
salutary adj curative, promoting health AHD/W7
salute n greeting, expression of good will W9
salute vb to greet/address with courtesy/kind wishes AHD/W7
salvage n compensation paid for saving/rescuing ship/cargo/persons from perils of sea AHD/W7
salvo n simultaneous discharge of multiple guns AHD/W7
save prep barring, excepting AHD/W7
save vb to deliver from sin AHD/W7
solder n metal/alloy melted to join objects AHD/W7
soldier n one in military service AHD/W7
solemn adj marked by invocation of religious sanction AHD/W7
solicit vb to entreat, make petition to AHD/W7
solicitous adj anxious, concerned, apprehensive AHD/W7
solid adj having interior filled with matter AHD/W7
sou n sol (old French coin) AHD/W7
Latin: cieo, ciēre vb to move W7
citus adj fast W7
consolidatus vb.ptc consolidated W7
consolido, consolidare vb to make solid W7
salubris adj salubrious W7
salus, salūtis n.fem health, safety, soundness RPN
salutaris adj salutary W7
salutatio, salutationis n.fem saluting LRC
saluto, salutāre vb to salute W7
salve vb.imp hail! W7
salveo, salvēre vb to be healthy W7
salvia n.fem sage W7
salvus adj safe, sound, healthy, unhurt RPN
solido, solidāre vb to make solid W7
solidus adj solid W7
sollemnis adj solemn, regularly appointed W7
sollicito, sollicitāre vb to disturb, ask for W7
sollicitus adj anxious W7
sollus adj whole W7
Late Latin: catholicus adj general, universal W7
salvo, salvāre vb to save W7
solidus adj solid W7
Portuguese: saúde n health TLL
Spanish: salud n.fem health TLL
saludo n.masc salute LRC
Old French: salver vb to save W7
sauf adj safe W7
sauf conj save, except W7
sol n.masc sou, coin, centime piece W7
soudier n.masc soldier, employee W7
soulde n.fem pay W7
Middle French: catholique adj re: Roman Catholic Church W7
salutaire adj salutary W7
salvage n.masc salvation W7
salver vb to save W7
sauge n.fem sage W7
solemne adj solemn W7
solide adj solid W7
solliciter vb to solicit, ask for W7
souder vb to solder W7
soudure n.fem solder W7
French: salut n.masc health; salute TLL
sou n.masc a coin W7
Italian: salute n.fem health TLL
saluto n.masc salute LRC
salva n.fem salvo, volley W7
Greek: katholikos adj general, universal W7
καθ-όλου adv in general LS
ὅλος adj whole, entire, complete RPN
ὅλως adv wholly, entirely LRC
Armenian: olǰ adj whole, healthy RPN
Old Persian: haruva- adj all RPN
Avestan: haurva- adj whole, entire RPN
Sanskrit: sárva-ḥ pron/adv all, whole; completely RPN
sarvátāti n totality, completeness RPN
Pali: sabba- adj all RPN
Tocharian B: solme adv completely, altogether RPN
Tocharian A: salu adv entirely, completely RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
imp=imperative (mood)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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