Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: spek̑-   'to watch, inspect, spy on'

Semantic Field(s): to Look


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: easbog n bishop ASD
Scots Gaelic: easbuig n bishop ASD
Welsh: esgob n bishop ASD
Old English: bisc(e)op, biscep n.masc bishop ASD/W7
Middle English: aspect n aspect W7
aspien vb to espy, detect, observe MEV
bisshop, bis(s)chop, bysshop(p)e n bishop MEV/W7
circumspect adj circumspect W7
despisen vb to despise W7
despite n despite W7
episcopal adj episcopal W7
especial adj especial W7
espien vb to espy W7
perspective adj/n perspective W7
prospect n prospect W7
respect n respect W7
respit n respite W7
specious adj specious W7
spectacle n spectacle W7
spice n spice W7
spien vb to spy W7
spite n spite W7
suspect n suspect W7
suspecten vb to suspect W7
English: aspect n position of stars/planets w.r.t. one another AHD/W7
auspice n observation in augury (flight/feeding of birds) AHD/W7
bishop n prelate, one having spiritual/ecclesiastical supervision AHD/W7
circumspect adj prudent, careful to consider circumstances/consequences AHD/W7
colposcope n endoscope for examining vaginal/cervical tissues AHD
colposcopy n medical examination using colposcope AHD
conspicuous adj obvious to eye/mind AHD/W7
despicable adj deserving to be despised AHD/W7
despise vb.trans to regard with contempt/aversion AHD/W7
despite n spite, pique, malice, contempt W7
despite prep notwithstanding, in spite of W7
epidiascope n opaque projector TLL
episcopal adj re: bishop(s) AHD/W7
especial adj special, particular AHD/W7
espionage n practice of spying/using spies AHD/W7
espy vb.trans to catch sight of AHD/W7
expect vb to stay, wait AHD/W7
frontispiece n principal front of building AHD/W7
horoscope n diagram of relative positions of planets in zodiac AHD/W7
inspect vb to look over, view closely, critically appraise AHD/W7
introspect vb to examine reflectively AHD/W7
periscope n instrument using mirrors/prisms to transfer image between different heights TLL
perspective adj aiding vision AHD/W7
perspective n optical glass (e.g. in telescope) AHD/W7
perspective n process/technique of representing spatial relations of objects AHD/W7
perspicacious adj keen, of acute mental vision/discernment AHD/W7
prospect n outlook, exposure AHD/W7
respect n reference, relation to/concern with something AHD/W7
respite n postponement, temporary delay AHD/W7
retrospect vb to refer to past event AHD/W7
-scope n.sfx means/instrument for viewing/observing AHD/W7
scope n space/opportunity for unhampered thought/motion/activity AHD/W7
-scopy n.sfx viewing, observation AHD/W7
skeptic n adherent/advocate of skepticism AHD/W7
species n individuals having common attributes/designated by common name AHD/W7
specimen n sample, part/item typical of whole/group AHD/W7
specious adj showy AHD/W7
spectacle n something exhibited as notable/unusual/entertaining AHD/W7
spectrum n array of components separated/arranged in order AHD/W7
speculate vb.intrans to reflect, ponder/meditate on subject AHD/W7
speculum n tubular instrument inserted into body passage for inspection/medication AHD/W7
spice n aromatic vegetable product used to season/flavor food AHD/W7
spite n hatred, petty ill will W7
spy vb to scout, watch secretly AHD/W7
suspect adj suspected, regarded with suspicion AHD/W7
suspect vb to distrust, have doubts about AHD/W7
telescope n optical instrument for observing distant objects AHD/W7
transpicuous adj transparent AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: bioscoop n cinema TLL
bisschop n bishop ASD
spiegel n mirror TLL
Old Saxon: biskop n bishop ASD
spēgal n mirror KSW
Old High German: piscof n bishop ASD
spehōn vb to spy W7
spiegal n mirror KDW
Middle High German: bischof n bishop ASD
German: Bischof n.masc bishop ASD
spähen vb to spy, peer LRC
Spiegel n.masc mirror TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: biskup n bishop ASD
spá n.fem prophecy, song of fate LRC
spegill n mirror KNW
Danish: bisp n bishop ASD
spejl n mirror TLL
Swedish: biskop n bishop ASD
spegel n mirror TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: aipiskaupus n bishop ASD
Latin: aspectus vb.ptc looked at W7
aspicio, aspicere vb to look at W7
auspex n leader, protector, bird augur AHD
auspicium, auspicii n.neut divination via flight of birds LRC
circumspectō, circumspectāre, circumspectāvī, circumspectātum vb to look around LRC
circumspectus adj circumspect W7
circumspicio, circumspicere vb to look around, be cautious W7
cōnspiciō, conspicere, conspēxī, conspectum vb to perceive, get sight of LRC
conspicuus adj conspicuous, visible W7
dēspiciō, dēspicere, dēspēxī, dēspectum vb to despise, look astray W7
despicor, despicari vb.dep to despoil, plunder W7
exspectō, exspectāre, exspectāvī, exspectātum vb to wait for, look forward to LRC
horoscopus n.masc device to indicate time W7
inspectus vb.ptc inspected W7
inspicio, inspicere vb to inspect W7
introspectus vb.ptc having looked inside W7
introspicio, introspicere vb to look inside W7
perspectus vb.ptc looked at through, clearly seen W7
perspicax, perspicācis adj perspicacious, sharp-sighted W7
perspicio, perspicere vb to look through, see clearly W7
prospectus n.masc view, prospect W7
prospectus vb.ptc foreseen W7
prospicio, prospicere vb to look forward, exercise foresight W7
respectus n.masc act of looking back W7
respectus vb.ptc regarded, looked back at W7
respicio, respicere vb to look back, regard W7
retrospectus vb.ptc looked back at W7
retrospicio, retrospicere vb to look back at W7
scepticus adj skeptical W7
species, speciei n.fem aspect, appearance; species LRC
specimen n.neut model, representative of species W7
speciō, specere vb to look W7
speciosus adj beautiful, plausible W7
speco, specere vb to look at W7
spectaculum n.neut show, spectacle W7
spectō, spectāre, spectāvī, spectātum vb to watch, look/gaze at LRC
spectrum n.neut specter, appearance W7
spectus vb.ptc looked at W7
specula n.fem watchtower W7
speculatus vb.ptc examined W7
speculor, speculāri vb.dep to examine, spy out W7
speculum n.neut mirror W7
specus, specus n.masc cave, pit LRC
suspecto, suspectāre vb to suspect W7
suspectus vb.ptc looked at, suspected W7
suspico, suspicere vb to look at from above W7
transpicio, transpicere vb to look through W7
Vulgar Latin: *ebiscopus n bishop AHD
Late Latin: despicabilis adj despicable W7
episcopalis adj episcopal W7
episcopus n.masc bishop W7
frontispicium n.neut front view, frontispiece W7
Medieval Latin: perspectivus adj optical, re: sight W7
respectus n.masc respect W7
New Latin: -scopium sfx -scope, looking W7
spectrum n.neut array of components W7
tele-scopium adj lit. far-seeing W7
transpicuus adj transparent W7
Spanish: especia n spice TLL
obispo n bishop ASD
Old French: despire vb to despise W7
despit n despite W7
espice n.fem spice W7
espier vb to espy, catch glimpse of W7
respit n.masc rest W7
Middle French: circonspect adj circumspect W7
espion n.masc spy W7
espionage n.masc espionage W7
espionner vb to spy W7
frontispice n.masc frontispiece W7
horoscope n.masc horoscope W7
perspective n.fem view, perspective W7
spectacle n.masc spectacle, magnifying glass W7
suspect adj suspect W7
French: épice n spice TLL
espionnage n.masc activity of spying W7
Old Italian: prospettiva n.fem technique of representing relations of objects W7
prospetto n.masc view, prospect W7
spione n.masc spy W7
Italian: dispetto n.masc despite TLL
scòpo n.masc goal, purpose W7
vescovo n bishop ASD
Lithuanian: wyskupas n bishop ASD
Albanian: respektim n.masc respect LRC
Homeric Greek: σκοπός n.masc spy, scout, watch(man) LRC
Attic: σκοπῶ vb to view, look at, consider LS
Greek: ἐπί-σκοπος n.masc guardian, overseer LS
σκεπτικός adj watchful, thoughtful, reflective LS
σκέπτομαι vb to look out/about/carefully LS
-skopion afx observation, examination W7
τηλε-σκόπος adj lit. far-seeing LS
hōro-skopos n.masc device to indicate time W7
Armenian: eskop n bishop ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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