Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. (s)pen(-d)-   'to pull, spin'

Semantic Field(s): to Draw, Pull


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: pund n.neut pound, pint W7
spang n.fem clasp, buckle, fastening W7
spin(e)l n.fem spindle ASD/W7
spinnan, spann, spunnon, spunnen vb.str to spin ASD/W7
spīþra n spider KEW
Middle English: countrepesen vb to counterpoise W7
dependen vb to depend W7
dispensen vb to dispense W7
expenden vb to expend W7
paynter n painter W7
pendaunt n pendant W7
pensif adj pensive W7
pension n pension W7
pentis n penthouse W7
perpend n perpend W7
perpendiculer adj perpendicular W7
perpoynt n perpend W7
poisen vb to poise, weigh W7
ponderen vb to ponder W7
ponderous adj ponderous W7
pound n pound W7
purpensen vb to deliberate, premeditate W7
recompensen vb to recompense W7
spang n shiny ornament W7
spangel n.dim spangle W7
spider n spider W7
spindel n spindle W7
spinnen vb to spin W7
spithre n spider W7
stipendy n stipend W7
suspenden vb to suspend W7
vilipenden vb to vilipend, regard as contemptible W7
English: antependium n hanging for front of altar/pulpit/lectern AHD/W7
append vb.trans to affix, attach AHD/W7
appendix n appendage AHD/W7
avoirdupois n weights (in a certain series) AHD/W7
compendium n abstract, brief summary of larger work/field of knowledge AHD/W7
compensate vb to counterbalance, be equivalent to AHD/W7
counterpoise vb.trans to counterbalance AHD/W7
depend vb.intrans to be contingent AHD/W7
dispense vb to parcel out AHD/W7
equiponderate vb to equal in weight/force AHD/W7
expend vb.trans to spend, pay out AHD/W7
geoponic adj agricultural AHD/W7
impend vb.intrans to hang suspended AHD/W7
lithopone n white pigment: precipitated zinc sulfide/barium sulfate AHD/W7
painter n line for towing/securing boat AHD/W7
pansy n flowering garden plant AHD/W7
penchant n liking, strong leaning AHD/W7
pendant, pendent n/adj (something) suspended/supported from above AHD/W7
pendentive n triangular spherical vaulting AHD/W7
pendulous adj poised without visible support AHD/W7
pendulum n freely swinging body suspended from fixed point AHD/W7
pensile adj pendent, hanging AHD/W7
pension n monetary (e.g. retirement) sum paid regularly AHD/W7
pensive adj musingly/dreamily thinking/thoughtful AHD/W7
penthouse n shed/roof attached to/sloping from wall/building AHD/W7
perpend, perpent n brick/large stone reaching through wall AHD/W7
perpend vb to ponder, reflect on carefully AHD/W7
perpendicular adj exactly upright/vertical AHD/W7
peso n Spanish silver coin AHD/W7
poise vb to balance AHD/W7
ponder vb to weigh in mind AHD/W7
ponderous adj of very great weight AHD/W7
pound n unit of mass/weight AHD/W7
prepense adj purpensed AHD/W7
preponderate vb to outweigh AHD/W7
propend vb.intrans to incline AHD/W7
purpensed vb.ptc premeditated, planned/deliberated beforehand AHD/W7
recompense vb.trans to repay, give compensation to AHD/W7
spangle n small shiny metal ornament AHD/W7
spider n arachnid having 2-part body/4 pairs of legs AHD/W7
spin, spun vb.str to draw out/twist fiber into yarn/thread AHD/W7
spindle n round rod/pin with tapered ends AHD/W7
spontaneous adj voluntary, arising without external constraint/stimulus AHD/W7
stipend n monetary sum paid periodically for services/expenses AHD/W7
suspend vb to debar temporarily from office/function/privilege AHD/W7
vilipend vb.trans to contemn, hold/treat as of little worth/account AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: pund n pound ASD
Dutch: spin n spider TLL
Old Low German: punt n pound ASD
spinnila n spindle ASD
Old High German: pfunt n pound ASD
spanga n.fem clasp ASD
spinna n spider KDW
spin(n)ala n spindle ASD
spinnan vb to spin W7
spīsa n food KDW
German: Spange n clasp ASD
Speise n.fem food, meal LRC
Spesen costs, charges, expenses LRC
Spind n.neut locker, wardrobe LRC
Spinne n.fem spider TLL
Spinnen n.neut spinning LRC
spinnen vb to spin LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: pund n pound W7
spöng n spangle W7
Icelandic: pund n pound ASD
spinna vb to spin ASD
spöng n.fem clasp ASD
Danish: spise n food LRC
Swedish: spindel n spider TLL
spis n food LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: pund n pound ASD
spinnan vb to spin ASD
Latin: appendix, appendicis n.fem addition, attachment, continuation W7
appendō, appendere vb to weigh out, hang to something W7
compendium n.neut saving, shortcut W7
compendo, compendere vb to weigh together W7
compensatus vb.ptc weighed, balanced, compensated W7
compēnsō, compēnsāre vb to weigh, balance, compensate W7
compensus vb.ptc weighed W7
dēpendeō, dēpendēre vb to depend, hang on/from/down W7
dispendō, dispendere vb to weigh out W7
dispēnsō, dispēnsāre vb to dispense, pay out, distribute W7
dispensus vb.ptc distributed W7
expendō, expendere vb to expend, pay/weigh out W7
impendeō, impendēre vb to overhang, be near/at hand W7
impendō, impendere, impendī, impēnsum vb to lay/weigh out, use, devote LRC
pendens, pendentis adj/vb.ptc hanging W7
pendeō, pendēre vb to hang, be suspended W7
pendō, pendere vb to hang, weigh, suspend W7
pendulum n.neut pendulum, something hanging W7
pendulus adj hanging W7
pensilis adj hanging W7
pensio, pensionis n.fem pension W7
pēnsō, pēnsāre vb to weigh, compare, ponder W7
pensum n.neut weight W7
pensus vb.ptc hung, paid W7
perpendicularis adj perpendicular W7
perpendiculum n.neut plumb line W7
perpendō, perpendere vb to weigh carefully, examine W7
ponderō, ponderāre vb to weigh, ponder W7
ponderosus adj heavy W7
pondus, ponderis n.neut weight W7
praeponderatus vb.ptc outweighed W7
praeponderō, praeponderāre vb to outweigh W7
propendeo, propendēre vb to hang down W7
sponte adv voluntarily W7
stipendium n.neut pay W7
suspendō, suspendere vb to suspend W7
Vulgar Latin: pendico, pendicare vb to hang W7
pendō, pendere vb to hang W7
*pēsum n weight AHD
Late Latin: recompēnsō, recompēnsāre vb to recompense W7
spontaneus adj spontaneous W7
Medieval Latin: aequiponderatus vb.ptc made to have equal weight W7
antependium n.neut antependium W7
appenticium n.neut appendage W7
compendium n.neut compendium, collection W7
dispēnsō, dispēnsāre vb to grant dispensation W7
equiponderō, equiponderāre vb to weigh out equally W7
spenda n pantry LRC
spēsa n food KDW
vilipendō, vilipendere vb to slander W7
New Latin: pendulum n.neut body suspended to swing freely W7
Portuguese: pesar n grief TLL
Spanish: pesar n regret TLL
peso n.fem Spanish currency unit W7
Old French: avoirdupois valuables, lit. goods of weight W7
peis, pois n weight AHD
penser vb to think W7
purpenser vb to deliberate, premeditate W7
suspendre vb to hang up, interrupt W7
Middle French: appentis n.masc penthouse W7
contrepeser vb to counterweight W7
dependre vb to depend W7
pendant prep while W7
pendoir n.masc clothesline W7
pendre vb to hang W7
pensée n thought W7
pensif adj pensive W7
pension n.fem pension W7
pentoir n.masc clothesline W7
perpain n.masc perpend/perpent W7
perpendiculer vb to set in perpendicular position W7
peser vb to weigh W7
pois- stem weight W7
ponderer vb to ponder W7
pondereux adj heavy W7
purpenser vb to deliberate W7
recompenser vb to recompense W7
vilipender vb to vilipend W7
French: appendre vb to hang to something W7
penchant n.masc leaning, tendency W7
pencher vb to incline W7
pendant prep during TLL
pendentif n.masc jewel hanging from neck chain W7
Greek: γεω-πονέω vb to plow, till LS
γεω-πόνος n.masc farmer, husbandman LS
πονέω vb to toil, labor, work hard LRC
πονηρός adj evil, wicked LRC
πόνος n.masc grief; labor LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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