Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: spend-   'to offer a libation'

Semantic Field(s): to Pour


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: espousen vb to espouse W7
sponde n spondee W7
spouse n spouse W7
English: despond vb.intrans to become discouraged/disheartened AHD/W7
espouse vb.trans to marry AHD/W7
respond vb to answer, say something in return AHD/W7
spondee n metrical foot: two long/stressed syllables AHD/W7
sponsor n one who presents candidate for baptism/confirmation AHD/W7
spouse n wife/husband, married person AHD/W7
Latin: despondeō, despondēre vb to promise W7
respondeō, respondēre vb to respond, answer W7
spondeō, spondēre vb to promise, betroth W7
spondeum n.neut spondee W7
spōnsa n.fem bride, betrothed woman W7
spōnsor, spōnsōris n.masc bail, surety; bondsman, guarantor W7
spōnsus n.masc groom, betrothed man W7
spōnsus vb.ptc promised, guaranteed W7
Late Latin: sponso, sponsāre vb to betroth W7
Spanish: esposo n spouse TLL
Old French: espous n.masc husband W7
espouse n.fem wife W7
Middle French: espouser vb to marry W7
respondre vb to answer W7
spondée n.fem metrical foot: two long syllables W7
French: épou n spouse TLL
Greek: σπένδω vb to promise, pour a libation LRC
σπονδεῖος adj re: libation LRC
σπονδή n.fem libation, drink-offering LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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