PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes
Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.
Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.
All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.
Pokorny Etymon: 1. sp(h)er-, sp(h)erə- 'to rush, push away, act rashly, etc.'
|Old English:||spora, spura||n.masc||spur||W7|
|spurnan, spornan||vb.str||to spurn, kick||W7/ASD|
|Middle English:||spore, spure||n||spur||W7|
|English:||hemisphere||n||half-sphere; one-half of Earth||TLL|
|sphere||n||ball, round object||LRC|
|spoor||n||track/trail of animal||AHD|
|spur||n||pointed device on rider's heel for urging horse||AHD/W7|
|Old Saxon:||spurnan||vb||to spurn, tread, strike with feet|
|Old High German:||sporo||n||spur||ASD|
|spurnan||vb||to spurn, kick||W7|
|Old Norse:||spyrna, spyrnad||vb||to spurn, kick, place the feet||LRC|
|Icelandic:||sperna||vb||to spurn, kick||ASD|
|Latin:||asper, aspera, asperum||adj||rough, harsh||LRC|
|sperno, spernere||vb||to spurn||W7|
|Greek:||σπαίρω||vb||to gasp, quiver||LRC|
Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:
Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):
|AHD||=||Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)|
|ASD||=||Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)|
|LRC||=||Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin|
|TLL||=||Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)|
|W7||=||Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)|