Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: sreu-   'to stream, flow'

Semantic Field(s): to Flow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: strēam n.masc stream LRC
Middle English: diaria n diarrhea W7
reume n rheum W7
-ria n.sfx -rrhea W7
streme n stream W7
English: catarrh n mucous membrane inflammation AHD/W7
diarrhea n abnormally frequent intestinal discharge AHD/W7
hemorrhoid n mass of veins in swollen tissue at/within anal margin AHD/W7
maelstrom n powerful (often violent) whirlpool AHD/W7
rheo- pfx flow, current AHD/W7
rheum n watery discharge from mucous membranes AHD/W7
rhyolite n acid volcanic rock: lava form of granite AHD/W7
rhythm n recurrent alternation of strong/weak elements in sound AHD/W7
rhyton n ancient hornlike drinking vessel AHD
-rrhea n.sfx flow, discharge AHD/W7
sastruga n long wavelike snow ridge AHD
stream n body of moving water AHD/W7
stream vb to flow (as if) in stream W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: strām n stream ASD
Dutch: maalstroom n maelstrom W7
stroom n stream, current TLL
Old Saxon: strom n stream ASD
Old High German: stroum, strūm n stream ASD/W7
German: Rhyolith n rhyolite W7
Strom n.masc stream; electric current LRC
Strömung n.fem stream, current TLL
North Germanic  
Icelandic: straumr n stream ASD
Danish: strøm n stream, current TLL
Swedish: ström n stream, current TLL
Latin: haemorrhoidae hemorrhoids W7
rheuma n.neut flux of the sea W7
rhythmus n.masc rhythm W7
Late Latin: catarrhus n.masc catarrh W7
diarrhoea n.fem diarrhea W7
-rrhoea sfx flowing W7
Middle French: catarrhe n.masc catarrh W7
hemorrhoides hemorrhoids W7
reume n.masc flu, cold W7
French: rhythme n.masc rhythm W7
Russian: struga n deep place AHD
Homeric Greek: κατα-ρρέω vb to flow down LRC
ῥέω vb to flow, stream, gush LS
ῥόος n flow, stream, current LRC
Greek: haimorrhoos adj flowing with blood W7
δια-ρρέω vb to flow through LRC
dia-rrhoia n.fem diarrhea, lit. flowing through W7
kata-rrhous adj that flows; re: influenza W7
rheuma n.neut flow, flux W7
rhoia n.fem flux, flow W7
-rrhoia sfx flowing W7
rhyax n stream (of lava) W7
rhythmos n.masc rhythm W7
ῥῠτός adj fluid, liquid, flowing LS
Sanskrit: sarati vb to flow W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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