Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. (s)ten-   'to drone, groan, thunder, etc.'

Semantic Field(s): Sound (n), to Groan, Noise, Thunder


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: þunor n.masc thunder W7
þunresdæg n.masc Thursday, lit. Thor's day W7
Middle English: astonen vb to astound W7
astonien vb to astonish W7
stunen vb to stun W7
thoner, thunder n thunder W7
Thursday prop.n day named for Thor: Germanic thunder god W7
English: astonish vb.trans to strike with sudden fear AHD/W7
blunderbuss n short firearm with large bore/flaring muzzle AHD/W7
detonate vb to explode suddenly/violently AHD/W7
Donner prop.n Thunder: one of Santa's reindeer LRC
Dunder, Donder prop.n a.k.a. Donner LRC
dunderhead n dunce, blockhead AHD/W7
stun vb.trans to strike dizzy/senseless AHD/W7
Thor prop.n god of thunder (Norse mythology) LRC
thunder n sound heard after lightning AHD/W7
thunder vb to produce sound like thunder W7
Thursday prop.n day between Wednesday and Friday AHD/W7
tornado n tropical thunderstorm AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: thuner, tonger n.masc thunder ASD
Thunres-dei prop.n Thursday, lit. Thor's day ASD
Dutch: donder n thunder W7
donderbus n blunderbuss W7
Old Low German: thuner n.masc thunder ASD
Old High German: Toniris-tac prop.n Thursday, lit. Thor's day ASD
þonar, donar n.masc thunder ASD/W7
German: Donar prop.n Thor LRC
Donner n.masc thunder LRC
Donnerstag n.masc Thursday, lit. Thor's day LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: Þōrr prop.n Thor W7
þōrs-dagr n.masc Thursday, lit. Thor's day W7
Icelandic: þōrr n thunder ASD
Danish: torden n thunder LRC
Latin: detonatus vb.ptc having thundered W7
detono, detonare vb to thunder down W7
tono, tonare vb to thunder W7
Vulgar Latin: extono, extonare vb to thunder W7
Spanish: tronada n.fem thunderstorm W7
tronar vb to thunder W7
Old French: eston(i)er vb to astonish CDC/W7
Homeric Greek: στενάχω vb to sigh, groan, lament LRC
στονόεις adj sad, wretched, causing sighs/groans LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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