Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. (s)teu-   'to hit, push, thrust'

Semantic Field(s): to Hit, Strike, Beat, to Push, Shove


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: do-tuit makes to fall GED
Middle Irish: tūag n.fem bow; axe IED/W7
Old English: stēap adj steep, deep GED/W7
stēap n.masc stoup, drinking vessel GED
stēop- pfx step- W7
stēpel n steeple, tower W7
stocc n.masc stock, base of tree W7
stūpian vb.wk to stoop ASD/W7
stybb, stubb, stebb n.masc stub ASD/W7
styntan vb.wk to stint, blunt, dull ASD/W7
Middle English: percen vb to pierce W7
step- pfx step- W7
stepe adj steep W7
stepel n steeple W7
stinten vb to stint W7
stok n stock, base of tree W7
stoupen vb to stoop W7
stubb n stub W7
student n student W7
studie n study W7
stutten vb to stutter W7
toile n toil W7
toilen vb to toil W7
English: alpenstock n long iron-pointed staff for mountain climbing AHD/W7
antitype n one foreshadowed by/identified with earlier symbol/type AHD/W7
archetype n prototype, original pattern/model from which things of same type are copied AHD/W7
contuse vb.trans to bruise, injure (tissue) without laceration AHD/W7
etude n piece of music for honing particular technique AHD/W7
etui n small ornamental case AHD/W7
etwee, etweese n.obs instrument(s) used for holding/plucking AHD/W7
linstock n forked staff with iron foot used to hold lighted match for cannon firing AHD/W7
obtund vb to dull, deaden, make less intense AHD
perse adj dark grayish blue/purple AHD
pertussis n whooping cough AHD/W7
pierce vb to stab, run pointed weapon into/through AHD/W7
ratatouille n vegetable stew seasoned with herbs/garlic AHD
retuse adj having apex rounded/obtuse with slight notch AHD/W7
shtick characteristic trait/talent/attribute AHD
steep adj high, lofty, sharply angled upward AHD/W7
steeple n tall structure with small spire atop church tower AHD/W7
step- pfx related by virtue of parental remarriage (not by blood) AHD/W7
stint vb to stop, put an end to AHD/W7
stiver n Netherlands monetary unit: 1/20 gulden AHD/W7
Stock prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
stock n log, stump, block of wood AHD/W7
stoke vb to stir/poke/rake (fire), supply fuel to IEW/W7
stoker n one who stokes furnace AHD
stoop vb to bend body forward/downward, opt. while bending knees AHD/W7
stoss adj facing in direction from which overriding glacier impinges AHD/W7
stub n stump AHD/W7
stucco n exterior wall covering usu. of sand/portland cement/small amounts of lime AHD/W7
student n scholar, learner AHD/W7
study n reverie, state of contemplation AHD/W7
stupefy vb.trans to benumb, make dull/stupid/insensible AHD/W7
stupendous adj marvelous, awesome, causing astonishment/wonder AHD/W7
stupid adj obtuse, slow of mind AHD/W7
stut vb to stutter AHD/W7
stutter vb.freq to speak in repetitive spasms AHD/W7
Stybba prop.n Merry's pony in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Styx prop.n Hades river over which dead souls are ferried by Charon (Greek mythology) LRC
toil n.arch battle, struggle AHD/W7
toil vb.obs to fight, argue, dispute, struggle, battle OED
tuck n sound of drumbeat AHD/W7
tuk vb to beat the drum AHD/W7
tussis n cough AHD
tweeze vb.trans to pluck/remove with tweezers AHD/W7
tweezers small pincer-shaped tools for holding/plucking/manipulating AHD/W7
tympanum n eardrum, tympanic membrane AHD/W7
tympany n percussive resonance W7
type n thing/person that foreshadows another AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: stāp adj steep, tall ASD
stēt n thrust GED
stēta vb.wk to thrust, push GED
stokk n stock ASD
Old Dutch: stuypen vb to bow ASD
Middle Dutch: stuken vb to push, stoke W7
Dutch: lontstok n lit. match-stick W7
stok n stick W7
stoken vb to stoke AHD
stotteren vb to stutter W7
stuiver n stiver W7
Old Saxon: stōtan vb to thrust GED
Old Low German: stokk n stock, trunk, log ASD
Old High German: stiof- pfx step- W7
stoc n stick W7
stocch n stock, trunk, log ASD
stōz n.str.masc thrust GED
stōzan vb.str to thrust GED
stucki n piece, crust W7
Middle High German: stief adj steep W7
stutz n.masc thrust GED
stutzen vb.wk to avoid GED
German: Alpenstock n.masc alpenstock W7
Stock n.masc staff W7
Stoss n.masc push, thrust LRC
stossen vb to push W7
stutzen vb to shorten, truncate; hesitate LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: staup n lump, knoll, cup W7
stokkr n.masc stock, beam LRC
stuttr adj scant W7
Old Icelandic: stauta vb to thrust GED
steytr n thrust GED
stūtr n.str.masc young ox; stump of horn GED
Icelandic: steypa vb to cause to stoop ASD
stokkr n stock, trunk, log ASD
stubbi, stubbr n stub ASD
stúpa vb.str to stoop ASD
stytta vb to shorten ASD
Danish: stok n stick TLL
stupe vb to stoop, fall ASD
Swedish: stupa vb to stoop, tilt, fall ASD
stupande adj stooping, sloping ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *stautan vb.str.VII to strike GED
Latin: archetypum n.neut archetype W7
contundo, contundere vb to crush, bruise W7
contusus vb.ptc crushed W7
retundo, retundere vb to pound back, blunt W7
retusus adj blunted W7
studens, studentis vb.ptc studying W7
studeo, studēre, studui vb to study, be eager, be fond of LRC
studiosus, studiosa, studiosum adv eager, studious LRC
studium, studii n.neut study, zeal, passion, interest LRC
stupefacio, stupefacere vb to stupefy W7
stupendus vb.ger astonishing W7
stupeo, stupēre vb to be benumbed, be astonished W7
stupidus adj mute, stupid W7
stuprum n.neut defilement W7
tundo, tundere vb to beat, pound, strike W7
tussis n.fem tussis W7
tympanum n.neut drum W7
typus n.masc image W7
Late Latin: antitypus adj corresponding W7
Medieval Latin: antitypus n antitype AHD
tympanum n.neut eardrum W7
New Latin: pertussis n.fem pertussis, rough cough W7
Spanish: estudiar vb to study TLL
Old French: estudie n.fem study W7
percer vb to pierce W7
toeil n.masc toil, confusion W7
toeillier vb to toil, stir, disturb W7
Anglo-French: toiller vb to toil, stir, disturb W7
toyl n.masc toil, confusion W7
Middle French: contuser vb to bruise W7
estud(i)e n.fem study W7
stupéfier vb to stupefy W7
stupide adj mute, stupid W7
French: archétype n archetype CDC
étude n.fem study, office (room) W7
étudier vb to study TLL
étui n.masc small ornamental case W7
Italian: stucco n.masc stucco, plaster W7
Albanian: shtyj vb to thrust GED
Homeric Greek: Στύξ, Στυγός n Styx: the River of Hate LRC
τυπή n blow, stroke LRC
τύπτω vb to hit, beat, strike LRC
Greek: anti-typos adj corresponding W7
arche-typon n.neut archetype W7
arche-typos n.masc archetypal W7
stypos n.masc stem W7
tympanon n.neut drum, kettledrum W7
tupos n print, impression AHD
Late Greek: antitupos n copy, antitype AHD
Sanskrit: tudáti vb to thrust, push GED
tundate vb to thrust, push GED
todás n one who incites GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
VII=class 7
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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