Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: stomen-   'mouth, stoma'

Semantic Field(s): Mouth


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Breton: staffu n mouth W7
Middle English: stomak n stomach W7
English: anastomosis n inosculation, union of parts/branches for intercommunication AHD/W7
ancylostomiasis n (disease caused by) hookworm infestation AHD/W7
ozostomia n halitosis, foul-smelling breath AHD
prostomium n portion of head of worm/mollusk in front of mouth AHD/W7
scyphistoma n sexually produced scyphozoan larva AHD/W7
stoma n small opening like mouth in form/function AHD/W7
stomach n dilatation in vertebrate alimentary canal AHD/W7
stomatous adj re: stoma AHD
-stomy n.sfx surgical operation establishing permanent opening AHD/W7
xerostomia n (abnormal) dryness of mouth AHD
Latin: scyphus n.masc cup W7
stomachus n.masc stomach, gullet, esophagus W7
Late Latin: anastomosis n.fem providing with an outlet W7
New Latin: Ancylostoma n.fem genus of hookworms W7
ancylostomiasis n.fem ancylostomiasis W7
prostomium n.neut prostomium W7
scyphistoma n.fem scyphistoma W7
stoma, stomatis n.fem mouth W7
Spanish: estomago n stomach TLL
Middle French: estomac n.masc stomach W7
French: estomac n stomach TLL
Homeric Greek: στόμα n.neut mouth, inlet, opening LRC
στόμαχος n.masc throat, gullet, esophagus LRC
Greek: anastomoun vb to provide with an outlet W7
anastomōsis n.fem providing with an outlet W7
ὀζό-στομος adj with ozostomia LS
στόμαχος n.masc stomach LRC
Avestan: staman- n mouth W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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