Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. streig-   'taut, stiff, strict; to twist; rope'

Semantic Field(s): Hard, to Join, Unite, Rope, Cord


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: strician vb to knit, darn, mend, repair IEW
Middle English: constrainen vb to constrain W7
destresse n distress W7
distreynen vb to distrain W7
restraynen vb to restrain W7
strainen vb to strain W7
strait adj strait W7
stresse n stress W7
English: astringent adj styptic, puckery, able to draw together soft organic tissues AHD/W7
constrain vb.trans to compel AHD/W7
constraint n check, restraint TLL
constriction n tightening TLL
distrain vb to levy distress upon AHD/W7
distress n seizure/detention of one's goods AHD/W7
prestige n standing/estimation in public opinion AHD/W7
restrain vb.trans to prevent from doing AHD/W7
restrict vb.trans to restrain, confine within bounds AHD/W7
strain vb to draw tight, stretch taut AHD/W7
strait adj narrow, restricted AHD/W7
stress n constraining force/influence AHD/W7
stretto n overlap in musical fugue of answer with subject AHD/W7
strict adj permitting no escape/evasion AHD/W7
stringendo adj with accelerating tempo AHD
stringent adj tight, constricted AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: stricchen vb to tie, knit ASD
German: stricken vb to knit ASD
Latin: adstringens, adstringentis adj/vb.ptc astringent, tightening CDC
astringens, astringentis adj/vb.ptc astringent, tightening W7
astringo, astringere vb to tighten, bind fast W7
constringo, constringere vb to draw together, bind fast W7
districtus vb.ptc drawn apart, stretched out W7
distringo, distringere vb to distrain, draw apart W7
praestīgia n.fem sleight, illusion, deception, conjuror's trick W7
praestringo, praestringere vb to tie up, blindfold W7
restrictus vb.ptc restricted W7
restringo, restringere vb to restrict W7
strictus, stricta, strictum adj strict, tight, drawn together LRC
stringens, stringentis adj/vb.ptc stringent, binding tight W7
stringō, stringere, strinxī, strictum vb to tie, fasten, bind/draw tight IEW
Vulgar Latin: districtia n.fem distress W7
Late Latin: praestigium n.neut prestige W7
Medieval Latin: distringo, distringere vb to distrain W7
Old French: destreindre vb to distrain, draw apart W7
destresse n.fem distress W7
estreit adj strict W7
Middle French: astringent n.masc binding W7
constraindre vb to constrain W7
estraindre vb to press in one's arms W7
prestige n.masc sleight, illusion, deception, conjuror's trick W7
restraindre vb to restrain W7
French: astringent adj binding, astringent CDC
prestige n.masc glory, honor, prestige W7
Italian: stretta n.fem squeeze, pressure W7
stretto adj close, narrow W7
stringendo adj stringendo, drawing tight AHD
stringere vb to draw tight AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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