Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: strenk-, streng-   'tight, cramped; cord, string'

Semantic Field(s): to Join, Unite


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: strang adj strong LRC
streng n.masc string, cord, rope W7
strengþu n.fem.indec strength W7
Middle English: stranglen vb to strangle W7
strangury n strangury W7
strengthe n strength W7
string n string W7
strong adj strong W7
English: strangle vb to throttle, choke by compressing throat AHD/W7
strangles infectious disease causing choking/strangling sensation AHD
strangulate vb to strangle, constrict AHD/W7
strangury n slow/painful urine discharge drop-by-drop AHD/W7
strength n capacity for exertion/endurance AHD/W7
string n small cord AHD/W7
strong adj robust, re: great strength AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: strang adj strong ASD
Old High German: strengi adj strong W7
German: streng adj stern, harsh, strict, severe LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: strangr adj strong ASD
Latin: strangulatus vb.ptc strangled W7
strangulo, strangulare vb to strangle W7
stranguria n.fem urine retention W7
Middle French: estrangler vb to strangle W7
Greek: στραγγάλη n.fem rope, noose, halter LRC
στράγξ n.fem drop squeezed out LRC
strangalan vb to strangle W7
strang-ouria n.fem urine retention W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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