Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: su̯ād-   'sweet; to enjoy something'

Semantic Field(s): Sweet, Glad, Joyful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: swēte adj sweet W7
Middle English: aswagen, asuagen vb to assuage CDC/W7
suasion n suasion W7
swete adj sweet W7
English: aedes, aëdes n genus of mosquitoes AHD/W7
assuage vb.trans to ease, lessen intensity of (pain) AHD/W7
assuasive adj calming, soothing AHD/W7
dissuade vb.trans to advise against (action) AHD/W7
hedonic adj re: pleasure/hedonism AHD
hedonism n doctrine that pleasure/happiness is sole/chief good in life AHD/W7
persuade vb.trans to move by argument to belief/action AHD/W7
soave n dry white Italian wine AHD
suasion n act of persuading/influencing AHD/W7
suave adj urbane, polished AHD/W7
sweet adj pleasing in taste AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: swēte adj sweet ASD
Old Saxon: swōti adj sweet ASD
Old High German: suozi adj sweet W7
North Germanic  
Icelandic: sœtr adj sweet ASD
Latin: dissuādeo, dissuādēre vb to dissuade W7
persuādeo, persuādēre vb to persuade W7
suādeo, suādēre vb to urge, advise W7
suasio, suasionis n.fem suasion, persuasiveness W7
suasus vb.ptc persuaded W7
suavis adj suave, soft, kind, sweet W7
Vulgar Latin: assuavio, assuaviāre vb to assuage, make softer W7
New Latin: aedes n.masc temple W7
Old French: assouagier, as(o)uager, asoager vb to assuage, make softer CDC/W7
Middle French: dissuader vb to dissuade, convince not to act W7
suave adj suave, soft W7
Old Occitan: a(s)suaviar vb to assuage CDC
Italian: soave adj soft, gentle LRC
Homeric Greek: ἧδος n.neut joy, pleasure, enjoyment LRC
ἡδύς adj soft, sweet, pleasant LRC
Greek: a-ēdēs adj unpleasant W7
hēdonē n.fem pleasure W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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