Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: su̯ē̆(i)-   'to bend, turn, swing, swivel'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend, to Turn


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: swæþ n.neut swath, track, mark of moving body ASD/W7
swāpan vb.str to swoop, sweep ASD/W7
swaþian vb to swathe W7
swīfan, swāf, swifon, swifen vb.str to swivel, revolve ASD/W7
Middle English: swappen vb to swap W7
swathe n swath W7
swathen vb to swathe W7
swift adj swift W7
swivel n swivel W7
swopen vb to swoop, sweep W7
English: swap vb to barter, give in exchange AHD/W7
swath(e) n path cut by scythe IEW/W7
swathe vb to bind/wrap/swaddle (as if) with bandage W7
swift adj re: moving with great speed AHD/W7
switch n slender flexible whip/rod/twig AHD/W7
swivel n bolt/pin joining parts allowing free pivot AHD/W7
swivel vb to turn (like on swivel) W7
swoop vb to move with sweep AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Frisian: swīva vb to be uncertain ASD
Middle Dutch: swijch n switch, twig W7
Old High German: sweibōn vb to roll, wind, turn/twist around ASD
sweifan vb to swivel, swing ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: svaþa vb to swathe W7
sveigja vb to swivel, sway W7
sveipa vb to wrap, encircle LRC
svíkja vb to betray LRC
Icelandic: sveipa vb.wk to sweep, stroke; wrap, swaddle ASD
svīfa vb to rove, turn, sweep ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: sweiban vb to cease, leave off ASD
Lithuanian: svaigti vb to become dizzy W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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