Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. su̯eid-   'to sweat, perspire; sweat'

Semantic Field(s): Sweat, Perspiration


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: swǣtan vb.wk to sweat ASD/W7
swāt n.neut sweat W7
Middle English: sweten vb to sweat W7
English: exude vb to ooze out AHD/W7
hidrosis n perspiration, excretion of sweat AHD/W7
sudatorium n sweat room in bath AHD/W7
sudoriferous adj producing/conveying sweat AHD/W7
sudorific adj diaphoretic, causing/inducing sweat AHD/W7
suint n dried perspiration of sheep AHD/W7
sweat n perspiration; hard work, drudgery W7
sweat vb to perspire, excrete moisture through skin AHD/W7
transude vb to exude, pass through membrane/permeable substance AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: swēt n sweat ASD
Dutch: zweet n.neut sweat ASD
Old Saxon: swēt n sweat ASD
Old High German: sweiz n sweat W7
Middle High German: sweiz n.masc sweat, blood ASD
German: Schweiss n.masc sweat LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: sveita vb to sweat ASD
sweiti n.wk.masc sweat
Danish: sved n.masc sweat ASD
Swedish: swett n.masc sweat ASD
Latin: exsudo, exsudāre vb to exude, sweat out W7
sudatorium n.neut sudatorium: part of Roman bath W7
sudatus vb.ptc having sweated W7
sūdo, sūdare vb to sweat (out) W7
sudor n.masc sweat W7
Late Latin: sudorifer adj re: bringing sweat W7
New Latin: hidrosis n.fem act of sweating W7
sudorificus adj sudorific W7
transudo, transudare vb to sweat through W7
Middle French: suer vb to sweat W7
suint n.masc sweat of sheep W7
Homeric Greek: ἱδρόω vb to sweat LRC
ἱδρώς n.masc sweat LRC
Greek: hidrōsis n.fem hidrosis W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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