Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: su̯ek̑s, sek̑s, ksek̑s, ksu̯ek̑s, u̯ek̑s : uk̑s   'six'

Semantic Field(s): Number, Much, Many


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: seissed nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
sé nbr.card six (6) EIE
Irish: sé nbr.card six (6) LRC
Scots Gaelic: sia nbr.card six (6) LRC
Manx: shey nbr.card six (6) LRC
Welsh: chwech nbr.card six (6) EIE
chweched nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Gaulish: suexos nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Old English: siex nbr.card six (6) LRC
siexta nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
siextig nbr.card sixty (60) LRC
Middle English: sexte n sext W7
six nbr.card six (6) W7
sixty nbr.card sixty (60) W7
English: hex(a)- pfx six AHD
hexad n group/series of six AHD/W7
hexagon n polygon with six sides AHD
Hexateuch prop.n first 6 books of Hebrew Bible, lit. six containers LRC
semester n six months AHD/W7
senary adj re: six, compounded of six parts/things AHD/W7
sestet n poem/stanza of six lines AHD/W7
sestina n lyrical form: six-line stanzas AHD/W7
sex- pfx six AHD/W7
sexagenary adj by sixties AHD
sexcentenary adj re: 600 AHD
sexennial adj (happening) every 6 years AHD
sext n fourth canonical hour AHD/W7
sextant n instrument for measuring celestial body altitude AHD/W7
sextile n aspect of heavenly bodies 60 degrees apart AHD/W7
siesta n afternoon nap/rest AHD/W7
Sistine adj re: pope named Sixtus LRC
six nbr.card 6 AHD/W7
sixth nbr.ord 6th AHD/W7
sixty nbr.card 60 AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: sehs nbr.card six W7
seh(s)to nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
German: sechs nbr.card six (6) LRC
sechste nbr.ord sixth (6th) LRC
sechzig nbr.card sixty (60) LRC
Semester n.neut semester W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: sex nbr.card six (6) EIE
sētti nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
East Germanic  
Gothic: saíhs nbr.card six LRC
saíhsta nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Crimean Gothic: seis nbr.card six (6) CGo
Umbrian: sest- pfx.card sixth (6th) EIE
Latin: semestris adj half-yearly W7
senarius adj consisting of six each W7
seni adv six each W7
sex nbr.card six W7
sexta n.fem sixth hour of the day W7
sextans, sextantis n.masc sixth part CLD/W7
Sextīlis prop.n sixth month (in old Roman calendar) LRC
sextīlis adj re: sixth month W7
sextus nbr.ord sixth W7
Late Latin: hexas, hexadis n.fem group of six W7
sexta n.fem sixth hour of day W7
New Latin: sextans, sextantis n.masc 1/6 of circle W7
sixtinus adj re: pope named Sixtus W7
Sixtus prop.n.masc name of some popes W7
Spanish: siesta n.fem nap W7
Italian: sestetto n.masc sextet W7
sestina n.fem six-line stanza W7
sesto nbr.ord sixth W7
sistino adj Sistine (from Pope Sixtus IV) W7
Old Prussian: us(ch)ts nbr.card sixth (6th) EIE
Lithuanian: šeši nbr.card six (6) EIE
šẽštas nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Latvian: seši nbr.card six (6) EIE
sęstais nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Old Church Slavonic: šestĭ nbr.card six (6) EIE
Bulgarian: šéstĭ nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Albanian: gjashtë nbr.card six (6) EIE
gjashtë(t) nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Homeric Greek: ἕξ nbr.card six LRC
ἑξήκοντα nbr.card sixty LRC
Greek: ἕκτος nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
hexas n.fem group of six W7
Armenian: vec nbr.card six (6) EIE
vec'erord nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Avestan: xštva- nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
xšvaš nbr.card six (6) EIE
Sanskrit: ṣáṣ nbr.card six (6) EIE
ṣaṣṭhá- nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Tocharian B: ṣkas nbr.card six (6) EIE
ṣkaste nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Tocharian A: ṣäk nbr.card six (6) EIE
ṣkäṣt nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
EIE=J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, eds. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (1997)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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