Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. su̯el(-k)-   'to eat, drink, swill, swallow'

Semantic Field(s): to Eat, to Drink


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: grunde-swel(i)ge, grunde-swilige n.fem groundsel ASD/W7
swelgan, swealh, swulgon, swolgen vb.str to swallow ASD/W7
swillan vb to swill W7
Middle English: groundeswele n groundsel W7
manticore n manticore W7
swalowen vb to swallow W7
swilen vb to swill W7
English: groundsel n (genus of) composite plant with yellow flowers AHD/W7
manticore n legendary animal: head of man, body of lion, tail of dragon/scorpion AHD/W7
markhor n large wild Himalayan goat AHD
swallow vb to take through mouth/esophagus into stomach AHD/W7
swill vb to wash, drench, swallow greedily AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Low German: far-swelgan vb to swallow, devour ASD
Old High German: far-svelhan vb to swallow RPN
swelgan vb to swallow W7
German: schwelgen vb to feast RPN
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: sollr n swill RPN
svelga vb to swallow RPN
sylgr n draft, drink of something RPN
Icelandic: svelgja vb to swallow ASD
Faeroese: svølgja vb to swallow RPN
Norwegian: svelgja vb to swallow RPN
Danish: svelge vb to swallow RPN
Swedish: svälja vb to swallow RPN
Latin: mantichora n.fem manticore W7
Persian: -khōr n.sfx eater AHD
mārkhōr n markhor, lit. snake-eater AHD
Avestan: x˅ar- vb to eat, drink, consume RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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