Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: su̯eng-, su̯enk- : su̯eg-, su̯ek-   'to bend, swing, swag'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: swengan vb.wk to swinge OED/W7
swingan, swang, swungon, swungen vb.str to swing OED/W7
Middle English: swengen vb to swinge OED
swingen vb to swing OED
English: swag vb.intrans to sway, lurch AHD/W7
swank adj active, full of life/energy AHD/W7
swank vb.intrans to swagger, show off AHD/W7
swing, swung vb.str to beat, whip, flog, scourge AHD/OED
swing n swinging movement W7
swinge vb.trans to beat, whip, flog, thrash AHD/OED
swingletree n singletree: pivoted horizontal crossbar connecting harness traces to vehicle/implement AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: swinga vb to swing, fling, sprinkle OED
Middle Dutch: swanc adj swank, supple W7
Old Saxon: swingan vb to swing ASD
Middle Low German: swengen vb.wk to swing, rotate, wheel round OED
swingen vb.str to swing, fling, hurl OED
Old High German: swingan vb to swing ASD
Middle High German: swanken vb to swag W7
German: schwanken vb to swag LRC
schwingen vb to swing LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: sveggja vb to swag W7
Danish: sving n bend, curve TLL


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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