Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: su̯esor-   'sister'

Semantic Field(s): Sister


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sweostor n.fem sister W7
Middle English: cosin n cousin W7
sister, suster n sister W7
English: cousin n child of one's aunt/uncle AHD/W7
sister n daughter of one's parents AHD/W7
sororal adj sisterly, re: sister AHD/W7
sororicide n killing of one's sister AHD
sorority n club of girls/women AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: swester, suster n sister ASD
Dutch: zuster n sister LRC
Old Saxon: swestar n sister ASD
Old High German: swestar n sister ASD
German: Geschwister siblings TLL
Kusine n female cousin TLL
Schwester n.fem sister LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: systir n.fem sister W7
Icelandic: systir n sister ASD
Danish: kusine n female cousin TLL
søkende siblings TLL
søster n sister TLL
Swedish: kusin n cousin TLL
syskon siblings TLL
syster n sister TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: swistar n sister ASD
Crimean Gothic: *schwester, schuuester n sister CGo
Latin: consobrinus n.masc cousin W7
sobrinus n.masc cousin on mother's side W7
soror n.fem sister W7
Medieval Latin: sororitas n.fem sisterhood W7
Old French: cosin n.masc cousin W7
Lithuanian: sesuõ n.fem sister LRC
Old Church Slavonic: sestra n.fem sister LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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