Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: tek̑þ-   'to plait'

Semantic Field(s): to Plait


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: tál n axe RPN
Middle English: context n context W7
sotil, sutil adj subtle W7
text n text W7
tiler n stock of crossbow W7
tissu n rich fabric W7
English: architect n one who designs buildings AHD/W7
context n part of discourse surrounding word/passage AHD/W7
dachshund n small dog (breed): long body, short legs, long drooping ears AHD/W7
dassie n coney, rock hyrax: small herbivorous mammal AHD
polytechnic adj re: instruction in technical arts AHD/W7
pretext n false motive/purpose/appearance cloaking real intent AHD/W7
subtle adj refined, delicate AHD/W7
technical adj re: practical knowledge of mechanical/scientific subject AHD/W7
tectonic adj structural, architectural AHD/W7
text n original written/printed work AHD/W7
tiller n lever for turning boat's rudder AHD/W7
tissue n fine lightweight fabric AHD/W7
toil n net for trapping game AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: das n badger TLL
Old High German: dahs n badger W7
dehsa n axe, poleaxe RPN
dehsala n axe, poleaxe RPN
German: Dachs n.masc badger LRC
Dachshund n.masc dachshund, lit. badger-hound W7
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: þexla n adze RPN
Latin: architectōn n.masc master-builder CDC
architectus n.masc architect W7
contexo, contexere vb to weave together W7
contextus n.masc coherence, connection of words W7
contextus vb.ptc woven together W7
praetexo, praetexere vb to weave in front, assign as pretext W7
praetextus vb.ptc pretexted W7
subtilis adj finely woven, hard to see W7
tela n.fem web, loom, fabric W7
telum, teli n.neut spear, weapon LRC
texo, texere vb to weave, build RPN
textus n.masc texture, context W7
textus vb.ptc woven W7
Late Latin: tectonicus adj tectonic W7
Medieval Latin: telarium n.neut beam of a loom W7
Portuguese: tela n viewing screen TLL
Spanish: tela n cloth, fabric TLL
Old French: soutil adj subtle W7
tissu n.masc tissue W7
tistre vb to weave W7
Middle French: architecte n.masc architect W7
telier n.masc beam of a loom W7
texte n.masc text W7
toile n.fem toil, cloth W7
French: architecte n architect CDC
polytechnique adj re: arts/techniques W7
Italian: architetto n architect CDC
tela n cloth, fabric TLL
Lithuanian: tašaũ, tašýti vb to hew RPN
Old Church Slavonic: tešǫ, tesati vb to hew RPN
Russian Church Slavic: tesla n adze, carpenter's tool RPN
Homeric Greek: τέκτων n.masc builder, carpenter RPN
τέχνη n.fem art, craft, skill LRC
Greek: archi-tektōn n.masc master builder W7
poly-technos adj skilled in many arts W7
tektonikos adj tectonic, re: builder W7
technikos adj technical, re: art/skill W7
Hittite: ták-ki-(e-)eš-zi to join, build RPN
Avestan: taša- n axe RPN
tašaiti vb to make, produce (as carpenter) RPN
Sanskrit: tákṣati vb to cut, plane, fashion RPN
tákṣan- n carpenter, wood-cutter RPN
Prakrit: takkhaï vb to cut, scrape, peel RPN
tacchaï vb to cut, scrape, peel RPN
Pali: tacchaka- n carpenter RPN
tacchati vb to build RPN
tacchanī- n hatchet RPN
tacchēti vb to chip, do woodwork RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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