Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. tem-, tend-   'to cut'

Semantic Field(s): to Cut


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: temp(e)l n.neut temple (edifice) W7
Middle English: anatomie n anatomy AHD
atom, a(t)tome n atom W7/CDC
temple n temple (edifice) W7
tempylle n temple (in loom) W7
tonsure n tonsure W7
English: anatomy n morphology re: structure of organisms AHD/W7
atom n minute indivisible particle AHD/W7
contemplate vb.trans to meditate on, view/consider with attention AHD/W7
diatom n minute planktonic colonial/unicellular alga AHD/W7
dichotomy n act/result of dividing into two groups AHD/W7
entom(o)- pfx (re:) insect AHD/W7
entomology n lit. insect-study LRC
epitome n summary of written work AHD/W7
orchiectomy n surgical removal of testicle(s) AHD
temple n edifice for deity worship AHD/W7
temple n device in loom for stretching web transversely AHD/W7
tmesis n separation of compound word by inserting other word(s) AHD/W7
-tome n.sfx part, segment AHD/W7
tome n volume forming part of larger work AHD/W7
-tomy n.sfx section, incision AHD/W7
tonsorial adj re: barber AHD/W7
tonsure n rite of admission to clerical state by clipping/shaving head AHD/W7
tylectomy n surgical removal of cyst/tumor AHD
West Germanic  
Old High German: tempal n.neut temple (edifice) ASD
German: atom n atom CDC
North Germanic  
Danish: atom n atom CDC
Swedish: atom n atom CDC
Latin: atomus n.fem atom, indivisible unit W7
contemplatus vb.ptc stared at W7
contemplor, contemplāri vb.dep to stare at W7
epitome n.fem abridgement W7
templum n.neut temple: space for observation of auguries W7
tempus n.neut time W7
tomus n.masc tome, section, roll of papyrus W7
tondeo, tondēre vb to shear W7
tonsorius n.masc instrument for clipping W7
tonsura n.fem act of shearing W7
tonsus vb.ptc shaven W7
Late Latin: anatomia n.fem dissection W7
tmesis n.fem act of cutting; separation of verb from particle W7
Medieval Latin: tonsura n.fem shaven spot on priest's head W7
New Latin: -tomia sfx -tomy, cutting W7
Portuguese: atomo n atom CDC
Spanish: átomo n atom CDC
Old French: temple n.masc temple W7
Middle French: tome n.masc volume, section of book W7
French: atome n atom CDC
Italian: atomo n atom CDC
Homeric Greek: τάμνω, τέμνω vb to cut, hew, fell LRC
Greek: ἀνα-τέμνω vb to dissect LRC
ana-tomē n.fem dissection W7
ἄ-τομος adj atomic, indivisible CDC
ἄ-τομος n atom CDC
δια-τέμνω vb to cut through LRC
dia-tomos adj cut in half W7
dicho-tomia n.fem dichotomy W7
ἐπι-τέμνω vb to cut short LRC
epi-tomē n.fem epitome W7
tendein vb to gnaw W7
τμῆσις n.fem section, cutting; separation of verb from particle LRC
τόμος n.masc cut, slice; tome, section LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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