Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ten-, tend-   'to span, stretch, extend'

Semantic Field(s): to Stretch, to Grow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: tan n time LRC
Welsh: tant n string LRC
Old English: þenian, þennan vb to stretch, extend RPN
Middle English: absteinen vb to abstain W7
attenden vb to attend W7
conteinen vb to contain W7
continuen vb to continue W7
deteynen vb to detain W7
distenden vb to distend W7
entenden, intenden vb to intend W7
entertinen vb to entertain W7
extenden vb to extend W7
lieutenant n lieutenant W7
mainteinen vb to maintain W7
obteinen vb to obtain W7
perteinen vb to pertain W7
portenden vb to portend W7
pretenden vb to pretend W7
reine n rein W7
retainen, reteinen vb to retain W7
retenue n retinue W7
sustenen vb to sustain W7
tenant n tenant W7
tenden vb to tend W7
tender n tender W7
tenement n tenement W7
tenon n tenon W7
tenor n tenor W7
tente n tent W7
tenure n tenure W7
tetanus n tetanus W7
tone n tone W7
English: abstain vb.intrans to refrain from action AHD/W7
anatase n tetragonal titanium dioxide AHD/W7
attend vb to give heed to AHD/W7
attenuate vb to make thin/slender AHD/W7
baritone n male singing voice between bass and tenor AHD/W7
bronchiectasis n chronic dilation of bronchial tubes AHD
catatonia n catalepsy AHD/W7
contain vb to restrain, keep within limits AHD/W7
contend vb to vie/strive in contest/rivalry/against difficulties AHD/W7
continue vb to maintain without interruption AHD/W7
detain vb.trans to hold/keep (as if) in custody AHD/W7
detent n mechanism to lock/unlock movement AHD/W7
detente n easing of tensions/relations AHD
distend vb to extend AHD/W7
entasis n slight bulge in shaft of column AHD
entertain vb to maintain, receive AHD/W7
epitasis n development in play leading to catastrophe AHD/W7
extend vb to stretch out AHD/W7
extenuate vb.trans to make light of AHD/W7
hypotenuse n side of triangle opposite right angle AHD/W7
intend vb to construe, interpret, understand; mean, signify AHD/W7
intenerate vb.trans to soften, make tender AHD/W7
lieutenant n officer exercising power for higher official AHD/W7
maintain vb.trans to keep in existing state, preserve from decline/failure AHD/W7
neoteny n attainment of sexual maturity in larval stage AHD/W7
obtain vb to gain/attain (by planning) AHD/W7
ostensible adj open to view, intended for display AHD/W7
peritoneum n smooth transparent serous membrane lining mammalian abdominal cavity AHD/W7
pertain vb.trans to belong as part/member/product/accessory AHD/W7
pertinacious adj adhering resolutely to design/purpose/opinion AHD/W7
polytene adj re: large multistranded chromosomes with chromomeres in contact AHD
portend vb.trans to bode, give omen/anticipatory sign of AHD/W7
pretend vb to profess, hold out appearance of being/possessing/performing AHD/W7
protasis n introductory part of play/narrative poem AHD/W7
rein n line fastened to each side of bit for control AHD/W7
retain vb.trans to keep in use/possession AHD/W7
retinaculum n connecting/retaining band/body AHD/W7
retinue n suite, body of retainers AHD/W7
sitar n Hindu guitar with long neck AHD/W7
subtend vb.trans to be opposite to AHD/W7
sustain vb.trans to give support/relief to AHD/W7
syntonic adj responsive/adaptive to social/interpersonal environment AHD/W7
taenia n ancient Greek fillet AHD/W7
tantra n Hindu/Buddhist scripture marked by magic/mysticism AHD/W7
telangiectasia n abnormal arteriole/capillary vessel dilation AHD/W7
tenable adj reasonable, defensible, able to be held/maintained AHD/W7
tenacious adj tough, cohesive, not easily pulled apart AHD/W7
tenaculum n slender sharp-pointed hook on handle AHD/W7
tenant n one who holds/possesses real estate/personal property by right AHD/W7
tend vb to move/direct/develop one's course in particular direction AHD/W7
tender adj fragile, delicate, having soft/yielding texture AHD/W7
tender n offer of money/service to satisfy debt/obligation AHD/W7
tendon n tough dense white fibrous cord/band attached to muscle AHD/W7
tendril n slender spiral organ attaching plant to support AHD/W7
tenement n holding, land/incorporeal property held by person AHD/W7
tenesmus n ineffectual urge to evacuate rectum/bladder AHD/W7
tenet n belief/doctrine/principle held to be true AHD/W7
tenon n projecting member for insertion into mortise AHD/W7
tenor n purport, general drift of spoken/written discourse AHD/W7
tenorrhaphy n surgical suturing of divided tendons AHD
tense adj rigid, stretched tight, made taut AHD/W7
tent n collapsible shelter of canvas/other material on poles AHD/W7
tenuous adj rare, not dense AHD/W7
tenure n act/right/term/manner of holding something AHD/W7
tenuto adv holding tone/chord firmly to full length AHD/W7
tetanus n lockjaw (acute infectious disease) AHD/W7
tone n vocal/musical sound AHD/W7
tonoplast n vacuolar membrane AHD
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: þennian vb to stretch, extend RPN
Old Low German: thenan vb to stretch, extend ASD
Old High German: den(n)en vb to stretch, extend RPN
German: dehnen vb to stretch, extend LRC
Katatonie n.fem catatonia W7
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: þenja vb to stretch, extend RPN
Icelandic: þenja vb to stretch, extend ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: uf-þanjan vb to stretch, extend, strive for RPN
Umbrian: en-tentu n.dat to the one stretched out LRC
Latin: abstineo, abstinēre vb to abstain W7
attendo, attendere vb to stretch to W7
attenuatus vb.ptc made thin W7
attenuo, attenuare vb to make thin W7
contendo, contendere vb to strain, exert W7
contineo, continēre vb to contain W7
continuo, continuare vb to continue W7
continuus adj continuous W7
detineo, detinēre vb to detain W7
distendo, distendere vb to distend, stretch apart W7
extendo, extendere vb to extend, stretch out W7
extenuatus vb.ptc reduced, weakened, diminished W7
extenuo, extenuare vb to reduce, weaken, diminish W7
hypotenusa n.fem hypotenuse W7
intendo, intendere vb to attend, direct attention to W7
intentio, intentionis n.fem effort LRC
obtineo, obtinēre vb to obtain, possess, hold on to W7
ostendo, ostendere vb to show W7
ostensus vb.ptc shown W7
pertinax, pertinacis adj tenacious W7
pertineo, pertinēre vb to pertain W7
portendo, portendere vb to stretch forward W7
praetendo, praetendere vb to allege as excuse, stretch (curtain) in front of W7
retinaculum n.neut halter, cable W7
retineo, retinēre vb to restrain, hold back W7
subtendo, subtendere vb to stretch beneath W7
sustineo, sustinēre vb to sustain, hold up W7
taenia n.fem band, head-band; tapeworm W7
tenax, tenacis adj tenacious W7
tendō, tendere vb to stretch, extend RPN
teneō, tenēre, tenuī vb to hold, control, understand LRC
tener adj tenuous, delicate W7
tenesmos n.masc straining at stool W7
tenor n.masc uninterrupted course W7
tensus vb.ptc stretched out W7
tenta vb.ptc.fem tense W7
tetanus n.masc tetanus W7
tonus n.masc tone, tension W7
Vulgar Latin: *retina n.fem rein, restraint W7
tenitus vb.ptc tenured W7
Late Latin: peritoneum n.neut peritoneum W7
protasis n.fem protasis W7
tenaculum n.neut instrument for holding W7
Medieval Latin: manuteneo, manutenēre vb to maintain W7
tendo, tendonis n.masc tendril W7
tenementum n.neut tenement W7
tenitura n.fem (land) tenure W7
New Latin: catatonia n.fem catatonia, tone going down W7
ectasia n.fem dilatation of vessels W7
ectasis n.fem ectasis W7
neotenia n.fem neoteny W7
retinaculum n.neut retinaculum W7
telangiectasia n.fem abnormal dilation of blood vessels and arterioles W7
tenaculum n.neut instrument for holding W7
tonus n.masc a state of partial contraction of a normal muscle W7
Portuguese: attender vb to attend CDC
attenuar vb to attenuate CDC
ter vb to have TLL
Spanish: atender vb to attend CDC
atenuar vb to attenuate CDC
tener vb to hold, have TLL
Old French: abstenir vb to abstain, refrain from AHD
atendre vb to wait, attend CDC
contenir vb to contain W7
destendre vb to loosen reins W7
maintenir vb to maintain W7
sustenir vb to sustain W7
tenable adj defensible, reasonable W7
tendre vb to stretch W7
teneüre n.fem land tenure W7
tenir vb to hold W7
tenon n.masc device to hold, kind of nail W7
tenor n.masc tenor, uninterrupted course W7
tente n.fem tent W7
tenure n.fem land tenure W7
Anglo-French: estendre vb to extend W7
Middle French: abstenir vb to abstain W7
contendre vb to contend W7
continuer vb to continue W7
destendre vb to slacken W7
destente n.fem relaxation W7
detenir vb to detain W7
entendre vb to purpose, intend W7
entretenir vb to entertain W7
estendre vb to tighten, to extend W7
lieutenant n.masc lieutenant W7
obtenir vb to obtain W7
partenir vb to pertain W7
rene n rein W7
retenir vb to retain W7
retenu vb.ptc retained W7
retenue vb.ptc.fem retained W7
tenant vb.pres.ptc holding W7
tendon n.masc tendon W7
tendre vb to stretch (out), offer W7
tendron n.masc tendril W7
tenement n.masc part that holds W7
tenir vb to hold W7
French: anatase n anatase AHD
attendere vb to wait, attend CDC
atténuer vb to attenuate CDC
baryton n.masc baritone W7
détente n.fem relaxation W7
ostensible adj apparent, visible, displayable in public W7
tenable adj tenable W7
tenir vb to hold, have TLL
Old Occitan: atenuar vb to attenuate CDC
Italian: attendere vb to attend CDC
attenuare vb to attenuate CDC
baritono n.masc baritone W7
tenere vb to hold W7
tenuto vb.ptc held, bound W7
Lithuanian: tìnstu vb to swell LRC
Latvian: tinu vb to braid, weave LRC
Old Church Slavonic: teneto n cord LRC
Albanian: ndënj vb to spread out LRC
Homeric Greek: τανύω vb to stretch (out), extend RPN
Greek: ἀνάστᾰσις n.fem removal, raising/rising up/again LS
anatasis n extension AHD
ἀνα-τείνω vb to extend, lift/stretch/hold up/out LS
βᾰρύ-τονος adj deep-sounding LS
ἐπι-τείνω vb to stretch (up)on/over LS
peritonaion n.neut peritoneum W7
peritonaios adj stretched around W7
πρό-τᾰσις n.fem proposition, premise of syllogism LS
προ-τείνω vb to put forward, stretch out before LS
σύντονος adj strained, intense, vehement LS
ταινία n.fem (head)band, fillet LS
τείνω vb to spread, stretch, extend RPN
τετᾰνός adj straight, stretched, rigid LS
τόνος n.masc strain, tension, stretching LS
hypoteinousa n.fem hypotenuse W7
ὑπο-τείνω vb to subtend, suggest LS
Avestan: tanava vb to keep distant LRC
Sanskrit: tatá-ḥ vb.past.pass.ptc stretched, extended RPN
tanóti vb to stretch, extend, lengthen RPN
tantra n tantra W7
Hindi: sitār n Hindu guitar W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pass=passive (voice)
past=past (tense)
pres=present (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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