Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: tep-   'to be warm, tepid'

Semantic Field(s): Hot, Warm


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: tene n fire (cf. Beltane) LRC
tess n heat W7
tē adj hot LRC
Scots Gaelic: bealltainn n Beltane: May Day GE/W7
Cornish: tana vb to kindle (fire) LRC
Old English: þefian vb to pant, gasp LRC
Middle English: Beltane prop.n Beltane W7
English: Beltane prop.n Celtic May Day festival LRC
tapas n religious austerity (Hinduism) AHD
tepid adj lukewarm, moderately warm AHD/W7
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: þefja, þefjað vb to smell ICE
þefr n.masc smell, odor, aroma; taste, flavor IEW
Latin: tepeo, tepēre vb to be tepid W7
tepidus adj tepid, lukewarm W7
Czech: teplȳ adj warm LRC
Serbo-Croatian: tòpiti vb to melt LRC
Old Church Slavonic: teplъ adj warm LRC
Russian: tëplyj adj warm LRC
Albanian: ftoh vb to make cold, deprive of heat LRC
Hittite: tapašša- n fever LRC
Avestan: tafnuš n fever LRC
tāpaiti vb to be warm LRC
Sanskrit: tapaḥ n heat; tapas AHD
tápati vb to heat, make warm W7
Tocharian B: antāpce n fire, conflagration LRC
tsāp- vb to make tepid LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
GE=Colin Mark: The Gaelic-English Dictionary (2003)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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