Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. to-, tā-, ti̯o-   'that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)'

Semantic Field(s): Human Being


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: lǣs conj lest W7
ðā adv/conj then, when LRC
ðænne adv then W7
ðǣr adv then, there, where GED
ðæs art.def the W7
ðæt adv/conj that ASD/W7
ðæt that, it ASD/RPN
ðanon adv thence W7
ðāra adv there GED
ðās pron those W7
ðe adv/conj/pron.rel that, who, which ASD/W7
ðe that, he W7
ðēah adv nevertheless W7
ðes n this W7
þider adv thither W7
ðis adj/pron.neut this W7
ðonne adv then W7
Middle English: both(e), boþ(e), bath adj/pron both MEV/W7
leste conj lest W7
natheless adv natheless, nevertheless, notwithstanding W7
than adv/conj then, than W7
thanne(s) adv thence W7
that art/pron that W7
the adv/art.def the W7
their adj/pron their W7
then adv/conj then, than W7
there adv there W7
they pron they W7
this art/pron this W7
thither adv thither W7
those art/pron these W7
though adv though W7
thus adv thus W7
English: both adj/pron two, one and another AHD/W7
decoy n pond into which fowl are lured AHD/W7
lest conj for fear that AHD/W7
natheless adv notwithstanding, nevertheless AHD/W7
tales people filling jury vacancies AHD/CDC
talesman n person filling jury vacancy W7
tandem n 2-seated carriage pulled by horses harnessed one in front of another AHD/W7
tantamount adj equivalent in value/effect/significance AHD/W7
than conj second member (point of departure in comparison expressing inequality) AHD/W7
that, those thing/person/idea indicated/mentioned/understood from (remote) situation AHD/W7
that adv to such an extent W7
that conj [function word introducing clause] W7
the adv than before/otherwise AHD/W7
the art.def re: someone/something clearly understood/previously mentioned AHD/W7
their adj re: them(selves) as possessors AHD/W7
then adv at that time AHD/W7
thence adv from that place AHD/W7
there adv in/at that place AHD/W7
they, them those ones AHD/W7
this, these thing/person/idea near/present in time/place/thought AHD/W7
thither adv there, to that place AHD/W7
though adv however, nevertheless AHD/W7
thus adv in this/that way/manner AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ðer adv there, then GED
thā adv/conj then, when ASD
thāch adv/conj yet, still, however, nevertheless ASD
thēr adv there, where ASD
thet conj that ASD
this, thisse dem.pron.masc this ASD
thit, this dem.pron.neut this ASD
thius, thisse dem.pron.fem this ASD
Middle Dutch: dus adv thus W7
Dutch: dan conj than TLL
dat conj that TLL
de art.def.masc the W7
deze this LRC
indien conj if TLL
Old Saxon: ðar adv there, then GED
thār adv there, where ASD
that conj that ASD
the adv/conj/pron.rel that, who, which ASD
thit dem.pron.neut this ASD
thius dem.pron.fem this ASD
thō, thuo adv/conj then, when ASD
thōh adv/conj yet, still, however, nevertheless ASD
Old Low German: thār adv there, where ASD
Old High German: bēde, beide adj/pron both GED/W7
dār, dāra adv there, where ASD/W7
dara adv to there GED
daz conj that ASD
daz that W7
denne adv/conj then, than W7
dese, desiu, diz this ASD/W7
dō adv/conj then, when ASD
doh adv though W7
doh adv/conj yet, still, however, nevertheless ASD
ðanan adv thence W7
ðar adv there, then GED
German: beide adj/pron both LRC
damit conj in order that TLL
dass conj that TLL
der, die, das art.def the LRC
dieser, diese, dies(es) this LRC
dort adv there LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: bāðir adj/pron both GED
ðar adv there, in that place LRC
ðaþra adj there W7
ðá adv then LRC
ðeir they W7
ðeirra their W7
ðō adv (and) yet, however, nevertheless W7
Old Icelandic: ðar adv there, then GED
ðat dem.pron that, it RPN
Icelandic: ðat conj that ASD
það it TLL
þau they TLL
þá adv/conj then, when ASD
þeim them TLL
þeirra their TLL
þess its TLL
þessi, þessi, þetta dem.pron this ASD
þó adv/conj yet, still, however, nevertheless ASD
þvi (to) it TLL
Danish: de they TLL
dem (to) them TLL
den it TLL
dens its TLL
deres their TLL
det it TLL
Swedish: de they TLL
dem (to) them TLL
den it TLL
deras their TLL
dess its TLL
dessa these TLL
det it TLL
där adv there TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: ðar adv there LRC
ðata that, this, the LRC
ðaþrō adv thence LRC
ðei conj as, that, so that LRC
þauh adv/conj yet, still, however, nevertheless ASD
Crimean Gothic: *þe, the art.def the CGo
*þo, tho art.def the CGo
Latin: istud dem.pron.neut this, that W7
tālis adj such, suchlike, of such kind ELD
tam adv so W7
tamen conj but, nevertheless LRC
tamquam adv just as, as if LRC
tandem adv finally; at one, thus, anyways LRC
tantus, tanta, tantum adj such, only LRC
tot adj so much, so many LRC
tum adv then LRC
Portuguese: tanto conj as TLL
Spanish: tan conj as TLL
Lithuanian: čià adv here LRC
čionaĩ adv here LRC
tàs, tà dem.pron this, that LRC
Latvian: tas, tā dem.pron that LRC
Old Church Slavonic: tamo adv there, to that place, thither LRC
to conj but, then, therefore LRC
dem.pron that, that one LRC
Albanian: tani adv now IEW
të adv/conj where IEW
Greek: τό the, this, that LRC
Hieroglyphic Luwian: tas this RPN
Hittite: ta conn [sentence connective] RPN
Sanskrit: tád this, that RPN
tár-hi adv then GED
Tocharian B: te dem.pron this one, it RPN
Tocharian A: täm this RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
comm=common (gender)
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
obj=objective (case)
pl=plural (number)
poss=possessive (case)
sg=singular (number)
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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