Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: trei-   'three, trio'

Semantic Field(s): Three, Group of Three


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: tri(ū) nbr.card three (3) EIE
Irish: trí nbr.card three (3) LRC
Scots Gaelic: trì nbr.card three (3) LRC
Manx: tree nbr.card three (3) LRC
Welsh: tri nbr.card three (3) EIE
trydydd nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
Old English: þirdda, þridda nbr.ord third (3rd) W7
þridding n.fem doing something for 3rd time W7
þrīe, þrēo, þrēo nbr.card three (3) LRC
þri-feald adj threefold ASD
þriga adv thrice W7
þri-milce n.masc May, lit. three-milkings (month) ASD
þrītig, þrittig nbr.card thirty (30) ASD
Middle English: detesten vb to detest W7
protesten vb to protest W7
riding n riding W7
terce nbr.ord tierce W7
tercian adj tertian W7
testament n testament W7
testicule n testicle W7
testifien vb to testify W7
testimony n testimony W7
thirde, thridde nbr.ord third (3rd) W7
three nbr.card three (3) W7
thrie(s) adv thrice W7
thritty nbr.card thirty (30) W7
tierce nbr.ord tierce W7
treis n trey W7
treye n trey W7
tri- pfx tri- W7
tribe n tribe W7
trine adj trine W7
English: attest vb to affirm as true/genuine AHD/W7
contest vb to make subject of dispute/contention/litigation AHD/W7
detest vb.trans to loathe, abhor, dislike intensely AHD/W7
obtest vb to beseech, supplicate AHD/W7
protest vb to avow, make solemn declaration/affirmation of AHD/W7
riding n administrative jurisdiction in Yorkshire, England AHD/W7
sesterce n ancient Roman coin: 1/4 denarius AHD/W7
tercel n male hawk/falcon AHD
tern n type of sea gull AHD/W7
terpolymer n polymer of 3 distinct monomers AHD
tertian adj recurring at ca. 3-day intervals AHD/W7
tertiary adj of 3d rank/value/importance AHD/W7
tertiary n member of of monastic 3rd order AHD/W7
testament n covenant between God and man AHD/W7
testicle n testis AHD/W7
testify vb to bear witness, make statement based on personal belief/knowledge AHD/W7
testimony n (ark containing) tablets inscribed with Mosaic law AHD/W7
testis n male reproductive gland AHD/W7
third nbr.ord 3rd (in place/time) AHD/W7
thirty nbr.card 30 AHD/W7
three nbr.card 3 AHD/W7
threefold adj triple, 3 times the number/quantity W7
thrice adv three times AHD/W7
Thrihyrne prop.n Helm's Deep mountain in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Thrimidge, Thrimi(l)ch prop.n Shire calendar's May in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
tierce nbr.ord third (3rd) AHD/W7
trey n side of die/domino with 3 spots AHD/W7
tri- pfx three AHD/W7
triad n trinity, group/union of three AHD/W7
tribe n social group comprising relatives/adoptees/slaves AHD/W7
triceratops n herbivorous dinosaur of Cretaceous Period AHD
trichotomy n division into 3 parts/classes/elements AHD/W7
tricrotic adj re: triple beat in arterial pulse AHD/W7
tricrotism n having 3 pulse beats per heartbeat AHD
tridactyl adj having 3 fingers/toes AHD/W7
trigeminus n main facial sensory nerve AHD
triglyph n 3-grooved tablet in Doric frieze AHD/W7
trillium n lily with erect stem bearing 3 leaves AHD/W7
trimer n three identical molecules combined AHD
Trimurti prop.n triad of gods: Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva (Hinduism) LRC
trine adj triple, threefold AHD/W7
trinity n triad, three in one AHD/W7
trio n group of three AHD/W7
tripedal adj having 3 feet AHD
triple adj having 3 units/members W7
triplex adj triple, threefold AHD/W7
triquetrous adj triangular, having three acute angles AHD/W7
triquetrum n wedge-shaped carpal bone AHD
triskaidekaphobia n abnormal fear of number 13 AHD
trisoctahedron n regular solid with 24 congruent faces AHD/W7
tritium n radioactive hydrogen isotope with 3 times ordinary mass AHD/W7
tritone n musical interval: three whole steps AHD/W7
troika n Russian vehicle pulled by 3 horses abreast AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: thrē, thria, thriu nbr.card three (3) ASD
thredda nbr.ord third (3rd) ASD
thria, thriia adv thrice ASD/W7
thrītich nbr.card thirty (30) ASD
Dutch: drie nbr.card three (3) LRC
Old Saxon: thriddio nbr.ord third (3rd) ASD
thrie, threa nbr.card three (3) ASD
thriio, thriwo adv thrice ASD
thrītig nbr.card thirty (30) ASD
Old Low German: thrie nbr.card three (3) ASD
thrīo adv thrice ASD
Old High German: drī, drīo, driu nbr.card three (3) ASD/W7
dritt(i)o nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
drīzug nbr.card thirty (30) ASD
Middle High German: drīes adv thrice EIE
German: drei nbr.card three (3) LRC
dreimal adv thrice LRC
dritte nbr.ord third (3rd) LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: þriði nbr.ord third (3rd) W7
þriðjungr n third part W7
þrír, þrjár, þrjú nbr.card three (3) LRC
Icelandic: þriþi nbr.ord third (3rd) ASD
þrír, þrjár, þrjú nbr.card three (3) ASD
Danish: terne n tern, sea-swallow DEO/W7
tre nbr.card three (3) LRC
Swedish: tre nbr.card three (3) LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: þreis, þreis, þrija nbr.card three (3) LRC
þridja nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
Crimean Gothic: *treiþien, treithyen nbr.card thirty (30), lit. third ten CGo
tria nbr.card three (3) CGo
*þiinetria, thune-tria nbr.card thirteen (10 + 3) CGo/GED
Umbrian: terti(u) nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
Latin: attestor, attestari vb.dep to prove, confirm, attest W7
contestor, contestari vb.dep to call as witness W7
destestor, detestari vb.dep to curse while calling on deity as witness W7
obtestor, obtestari vb.dep to beseech, call to witness W7
protestor, protestari vb.dep to witness before jury W7
sestertius adj two and a half times as great W7
ter adv thrice LRC
tertianus adj of the third W7
tertiarius adj of a third W7
tertius nbr.ord third (3rd) W7
testamentum n.neut will, covenant W7
testiculus n.masc testicle W7
testificor, testificari vb.dep to testify W7
testimonium n.neut evidence, witness W7
testis n.masc witness: 3rd party to transaction W7
testor, testari vb.dep to bear witness, give evidence W7
trēs nbr.card three (3) W7
tri- pfx three W7
triad- pfx group of three W7
trias n.fem triad W7
tribus n.fem tribe, division of (Roman) people W7
triglyphus n.masc triglyph W7
trini adv three each W7
trinus adj of three W7
triplex adj threefold W7
Late Latin: testamentum n.neut covenant with God, holy scripture W7
testimonium n.neut testimony, Decalogue W7
Medieval Latin: tertiarius adj of a third W7
New Latin: trillium n.neut genus of herbs W7
tritium n.neut radioactive hydrogen isotope W7
Portuguese: attestar vb to attest CDC
Spanish: atestar vb to attest CDC
Old French: atester vb to attest CDC
Middle French: attester vb to attest W7
contester vb to contest W7
obtester vb to obtest W7
protester vb to protest W7
terz nbr.ord third (3rd) W7
tierce nbr.ord third (3rd) W7
treie nbr three (3) W7
treis nbr three (3) W7
trin adj of three W7
French: attester vb to attest CDC
trio n.masc trio W7
trois nbr.card three (3) W7
Italian: attestare vb to attest CDC
tri- pfx three W7
trio n.masc trio, set of three W7
Old Prussian: tīrts, tirts nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
tris nbr.card three (3) EIE
Lithuanian: trẽčias, trečià nbr.ord third (3rd) LRC
trỹs nbr.card three (3) EIE
Latvian: trešaĩs nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
trîs nbr.card three (3) EIE
Old Church Slavonic: tretijĭ, treti nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
trьe, tri, tri nbr.card three (3) LRC
Russian: trétij nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
troe nbr.card three (3) W7
Albanian: tre nbr.card three (3) EIE
tretë nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
Mycenaean: *tri- nbr.card three (3) EIE
ti-ri-po n tripod EIE
Homeric Greek: τρεῖς, τριάς, τρία nbr.card three (3) LRC
τριάκοντα nbr.card thirty (30) LRC
τρίτατος nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
Greek: τρῐ- pfx three, thrice LS
τρί-γλῠφος adj triglyphic, lit. thrice-cloven LS
τρῐ-δακτῠλος adj tridactyl LS
τρίς adv thrice LS
τρίτος nbr.ord third (3rd) LRC
Lycian: tri- nbr.card three (3) EIE
tri- nbr.card three (3) LRC
Hittite: teri- nbr.card three (3) LRC
teriyan nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
Armenian: erek' nbr.card three (3) LRC
Avestan: θrayō nbr.card three (3) EIE
θriš adv thrice EIE
θritya- nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
Sanskrit: tráyas, trī́ nbr.card three (3) EIE
tritá, tr̊tíya- nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
trimūrti adj having three forms, re: Trimurti W7
triṣ, triḥ adv thrice EIE
Tocharian B: trai, tarya nbr.card three (3) EIE
trite nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
Tocharian A: tre nbr.card three (3) EIE
trit nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
DEO=Hermann Vinterberg and C.A. Bodelsen: Dansk-Engelsk Ordbog (1966)
EIE=J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, eds. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (1997)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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