Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: tres-, ters-, *teres-   'to quiver, tremble'

Semantic Field(s): to Shake


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: terrible adj terrible W7
terror n terror W7
English: deter vb.trans to turn aside, prevent/discourage from acting AHD/W7
terrible adj terrifying, exciting terror AHD/W7
terrific adj terrible, exciting fear/awe AHD/W7
terrify vb to fill with terror W7
terror n state of intense fear AHD/W7
Latin: dēterreo, dēterrēre vb to deter, frighten, terrify W7
terreo, terrēre, terrui, territus vb to terrify, frighten LRC
terribilis adj terrible W7
terrificus adj terrific W7
terror n.masc fear, dread, fright, terror RPN
Middle French: terreur n.fem terror, fright W7
terrible adj terrible W7
Greek: τρέω vb to quiver, tremble, be afraid RPN
Avestan: tərəs- vb to be afraid RPN
Sanskrit: trásati vb to quiver, tremble RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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