Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: tr-eu-d-   'to thrust, push, press, squash'

Semantic Field(s): to Push, Shove, to Press


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: þrēat n.masc band, troop; threat, compulsion LRC
Middle English: thret n threat, compulsion W7
thristen vb to thrust W7
thrusten vb to thrust W7
English: abstruse adj recondite, difficult to comprehend AHD/W7
extrude vb to push/press/force out AHD/W7
intrude vb to thrust oneself in AHD/W7
obtrude vb to extrude, thrust out AHD/W7
protrude vb to thrust forward AHD/W7
threat n coercion via warning re: evil/damage/injury AHD/W7
thrust, thrust vb to push/shove/drive with force AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle High German: drōz n.masc annoyance, molestation ASD/W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: þrȳsta vb to thrust, push W7
Icelandic: þraut n.fem labor, struggle, hard task ASD
Latin: abstrūdō, abstrūdere vb to conceal W7
abstrusus, abtrusa, abstrusum adj abstruse, secret, concealed W7
dētrūdō, dētrūdere, dētrūsī, dētrūsus vb to dislodge, thrust away LRC
extrūdō, extrūdere vb to extrude W7
intrūdō, intrūdere vb to intrude W7
obtrūdō, obtrūdere vb to obtrude W7
prōtrūdō, prōtrūdere vb to protrude W7
trūdō, trūdere vb to thrust W7
Old Church Slavonic: trudъ n.masc labor LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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