Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: trozdos- : tr̥zdos-   'thrush, blackbird'

Semantic Field(s): Bird


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: þrostle n.fem throstle W7
þrysce n.fem thrush W7
Middle English: ostrich n ostrich W7
sturdy adj sturdy W7
throstle n throstle W7
thrusche n thrush W7
English: ostrich n swift two-toed flightless African bird AHD/W7
struthious adj ratite, re: ostriches/related birds AHD/W7
sturdy adj stout, firmly built/constituted AHD/W7
throstle n thrush AHD/W7
thrush n small/medium passerine bird AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: drosca n.fem thrush ASD
droscala n throstle W7
Middle High German: drostel n.fem throstle, singing thrush ASD
German: Drossel n.fem throstle LRC
North Germanic  
Swedish: koltrast n blackbird, lit. black-thrush TLL
trast n thrush SAO
Latin: turdus n.masc thrush W7
Vulgar Latin: exturdio, exturdīre vb to be dizzy like thrush drunk from eating grapes W7
Late Latin: struthio n.masc ostrich W7
Old French: estourdir vb to stun W7
ostrusce n.fem ostrich W7
Homeric Greek: στροψθός n sparrow LRC
Greek: στροψθός n.masc/fem sparrow LS


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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