Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: tū̆   'thou, you'

Semantic Field(s): Human Being


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: taí thy, thine RPN
tú thou RPN
Scots Gaelic: tu you TLL
Old English: ðīn thy, thine W7/ASD
ðū thou W7
Middle English: thin thine W7
thou thou W7
thy thy W7
English: thee you LRC
thine your(s) AHD/W7
thou you AHD/W7
thy your, re: you/yourself as possessor AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: thīn thy, thine ASD
thu thou ASD
Old Saxon: thu thou ASD
Old Low German: thīn thy, thine ASD
Old High German: dīn thy, thine ASD
dū thou W7
German: dein thy, thine LRC
dich thee TLL
dir (to) thee TLL
du thou LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: þú thou LRC
Icelandic: þið pron.2.du you two TLL
þik thee TLL
þinn thy, thine ASD
þjér you TLL
þú thou ASD
Danish: dig (to) thee TLL
din thy, thine TLL
du thou TLL
Swedish: dej (to) thee TLL
dig (to) thee TLL
din thy, thine TLL
du thou TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: þeina thy, thine RPN
þeins thy, thine ASD
þu thou LRC
þuk thee RPN
þus (to) thee RPN
Crimean Gothic: *þo, tzo you CGo
Old Latin: tēd you RPN
Latin: tē you RPN
tē thee RPN
tibī (to) thee RPN
tū thou LRC
tuī thy, thine RPN
Italian: te (to) thee TLL
tu thou TLL
Lithuanian: táv (to) thee RPN
tavę̀ thee RPN
tavę̃s thy, thine RPN
tavimì thee RPN
tavyjè you RPN
tù thou LRC
Old Church Slavonic: tvoi adj thy LRC
tebe thy, thine RPN
tebe thou RPN
tebě (to) thee RPN
ti thou RPN
tobojǫ you RPN
ty thou LRC
tę thee RPN
Russian: tebe (to) thee TLL
tebya thee TLL
ti thou TLL
Albanian: teje you RPN
të, ti thou RPN
ty thee RPN
Doric: τέ thee RPN
τέος thy, thine RPN
τοι you RPN
τοί (to) thee RPN
τύ thou RPN
Greek: σύ you LRC
Luwian: ti-i thou RPN
Hittite: -ta thee RPN
-ta-aš thy, thine RPN
-te-it you RPN
-te-it you RPN
-ti (to) thee RPN
-ti-in thee RPN
-ti-iš thou RPN
tu-e-da-az you RPN
tu-(e-)el thy, thine RPN
tu-e-ta-za you RPN
tu-ga you RPN
tu-uk thee RPN
zi-ga you RPN
zi-ik thou RPN
Palaic: ti-i thou RPN
tu-ú thee RPN
Classical Armenian: du thou LRC
Armenian: du thou RPN
Avestan: tū you RPN
tūm thou RPN
Sanskrit: táva thy, thine RPN
túbhyam (to) thee RPN
te you(r) RPN
tvát you RPN
tvám thou RPN
tváyā thee RPN
tváyi you RPN
tvā thee RPN
tvā́m thee RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
abl=ablative (case)
acc=accusative (case)
dat=dative (case)
du=dual (number)
gen=genitive (case)
inst=instrumental (case)
loc=locative (case)
neut=neuter (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
obj=objective (case)
obl=oblique (case)
pl=plural (number)
poss=possessive (case)
sg=singular (number)
2=2nd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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