Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. tu̯ei-, extended tu̯ei-s-   'to shake, excite, move back and forth, shimmer'

Semantic Field(s): to Shake, to Shine, Glisten


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: þwītan, þwāt, þwiton, þwiten vb.str to thwite ASD/W7
Middle English: sistrum n sistrum W7
thwitel n whittle W7
thwiten vb to thwite W7
whittel n whittle W7
English: doit n old Dutch coin AHD/W7
seism n earthquake AHD/W7
seismo- pfx re: seism, vibration AHD/W7
sistrum n ancient Egyptian percussion instrument AHD/W7
thwite vb to cut, shape, whittle OED
whittle n large knife AHD/W7
whittle vb to pare/cut off chips with knife AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: duit n a coin W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: þveita vb to thwite, hew W7
þveiti n small coin W7
Icelandic: þveita n small axe ASD
þveit(i) n cut-off piece, parcel of land ASD
þvita n kind of axe ASD
Latin: sistrum n.neut sistrum, rattle W7
Homeric Greek: σείω vb to shake, move to/fro LS
Greek: σεισμός n.masc shock, seism, commotion LS


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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