Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: tu̯erk̑-   'to cut'

Semantic Field(s): to Cut


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: anasarca n anasarca AHD
English: anasarca n edema with serum accumulation in connective tissue AHD/W7
perisarc n outer chitinous integument of hydroid AHD/W7
sarcasm n gibe, cutting/hostile/contemptuous remark AHD/W7
sarc(o)- pfx flesh AHD
sarcodinian n protozoan that forms pseudopods to move/capture food AHD
sarcoid adj fleshy, re: flesh AHD/W7
sarcolemma n thin membrane enclosing striated muscle fiber AHD
sarcoma n cancer, malignant neoplasm AHD/W7
sarcophagus n limestone coffin AHD/W7
sarcoptic adj re: sarcoptid mites AHD
sarcoptid adj re: itch/mange (mites) AHD
sarcous adj fleshy, re: flesh/muscle tissue AHD
syssarcosis n junction of bones via attached muscles AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: Sarkasmus n.masc sarcasm LRC
Latin: sarcophagus adj/n.masc flesh-eating; coffin, sarcophagus W7
trux, trucis adj fierce LRC
Medieval Latin: anasarca n anasarca AHD
New Latin: anasarca n.fem anasarca W7
sarcoma n.fem sarcoma W7
syssarcosis n.fem syssarcosis W7
French: sarcasme n.masc sarcasm, injury W7
Homeric Greek: σάρξ n.fem flesh LRC
Greek: σαρκάζω vb to tear flesh; sneer, bite lips in rage LRC
sarkasmos n.masc bitter laughter W7
sarkoeidēs adj like flesh W7
sarkoun vb to grow flesh W7
σαρκο-φάγος adj/n.masc flesh-eating; coffin, sarcophagus LRC
sarkōma n.neut sarcoma, fleshy growth W7
syssarkousthai vb to be overgrown with flesh W7
syssarkōsis n.fem being overgrown with flesh W7
Avestan: thwar vb to cut W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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