Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ū̆d-   'out, away, up(wards)'

Semantic Field(s): Far (adj)

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: abūtan adv/prep about W7/ASD
būtan, būton, būtun adv/conj/prep outside, without, except (that) W7/ASD
or- pfx from, without; early, original ASD
or-eald adj very old, lit. from (of) old ASD
or-þanc adj cunning, skillful ASD
or-þanc n.masc/neut device, artifice, skillful work/contrivance ASD
ūt adv out, beyond, without, outside LRC
ūtera, ūtor adj/adv.comp outer W7/ASD
ūter-mere n.masc open sea, lit. outer sea LRC
ūte-weard adj outward LRC
ūtmest adj.sup last, utmost W7/ASD
Middle English: about adv whereabouts W7
boute prep without MEV
but, bot(e) adv/conj but W7/MEV
ort n ort AHD/W7
out prep out W7
utmest, utmost adj utmost W7
utter adv outside W7
uttren vb to utter W7
English: about adv around, on all sides AHD/W7
auslander n alien, outsider, foreigner AHD
but adv/conj only, merely; unless, except (for) AHD/W7
carouse n large cup of liquor (emptied/consumed) AHD/W7
hubris n arrogance, overweening pride/self-confidence AHD/W7
hysteresis n retardation of effect of force(s) AHD/W7
Orald prop.n a.k.a. Tom Bombadil in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
ort n scrap, morsel left after meal AHD/W7
Orthanc prop.n Saruman's tower in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
out prep in direction away from inside/center AHD/W7
uitlander n foreigner, lit. outlander AHD
Ursprache prop.n parent language, esp. a proto-language (i.e. reconstructed from later evidence) LRC
utmost adj extreme, situated at farthest/most distant point AHD/W7
utter adj total, absolute AHD/W7
utter vb.trans to offer for sale AHD/W7
vigorish n charge taken on bets AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: buta prep out, against, without ASD
ūta-werd adj outward, extreme ASD
ūtera adj outer, outmost ASD
Frisian: buten prep out, against, without ASD
Middle Dutch: oor adv/prep out AHD
Dutch: buiten prep out, against, without ASD
uit prep out of TLL
Afrikaans: uitlander n uitlander AHD
Old Saxon: būtan, bōtan prep out, against, without ASD
ūt adv out, beyond ASD
Old High German: būzan adv/conj/prep without, except W7
uralt adj very old ASD
urdanc, urdank n.str.masc idea, invention, fabrication LRC
ūz prep/adv out, beyond W7/ASD
ūzero adj outer, outmost ASD
Middle High German: ūz prep out AHD
German: aus prep out LRC
Ausländer n.masc auslander LRC
ausländisch adj foreign, alien, exotic LRC
ausserhalb prep outside TLL
bauszen prep out, without, against ASD
Garaus n.masc termination W7
ur- pfx primitive W7
Ursprache n.fem Ursprache W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: ór prep from, (out) of; with the material of LRC
útar adv.comp farther out LRC
úti adv outside, out at sea, unsheltered LRC
Icelandic: út adv out, beyond ASD
Danish: ud prep out of TLL
uden prep without TLL
udenfor prep outside TLL
Swedish: ut prep out of TLL
utan prep without TLL
utanför prep outside TLL
utom prep except TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: us prep from, out (of) LRC
ūt adv out, beyond ASD
ūta adv out, without LRC
Italic  
Middle French: carous adv all out, emptied W7
carrousse adv all out, emptied W7
Baltic  
Latvian: uz prep on, for, upon LRC
Hellenic  
Greek: ὕβρις n.fem hubris, outrage, wantonness LS
ὑστερέω vb to come late, fall short LS
ὑστέρησις n.fem need, shortcoming, hysteresis LS
ὕστερον adv later LRC
ὕστερος adj later, subsequent LS
Indic  
Sanskrit: ud prep up, out W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
comp=comparative
conj=conjunction
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pfx=prefix
prep=preposition
prop=proper
str=strong (inflection)
sup=superlative
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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