Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ū̆d-   'out, away, up(wards)'

Semantic Field(s): Far (adj)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: abūtan adv/prep about W7/ASD
būtan, būton, būtun adv/conj/prep outside, without, except (that) W7/ASD
or- pfx from, without; early, original ASD
or-eald adj very old, lit. from (of) old ASD
or-þanc adj cunning, skillful ASD
or-þanc n.masc/neut device, artifice, skillful work/contrivance ASD
ūt adv out, beyond, without, outside LRC
ūtera, ūtor adj/adv.comp outer W7/ASD
ūter-mere n.masc open sea, lit. outer sea LRC
ūte-weard adj outward LRC
ūtmest adj.sup last, utmost W7/ASD
Middle English: about adv whereabouts W7
boute prep without MEV
but, bot(e) adv/conj but W7/MEV
ort n ort AHD/W7
out prep out W7
utmest, utmost adj utmost W7
utter adv outside W7
uttren vb to utter W7
English: about adv around, on all sides AHD/W7
auslander n alien, outsider, foreigner AHD
but adv/conj only, merely; unless, except (for) AHD/W7
carouse n large cup of liquor (emptied/consumed) AHD/W7
hubris n arrogance, overweening pride/self-confidence AHD/W7
hysteresis n retardation of effect of force(s) AHD/W7
Orald prop.n a.k.a. Tom Bombadil in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
ort n scrap, morsel left after meal AHD/W7
Orthanc prop.n Saruman's tower in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
out prep in direction away from inside/center AHD/W7
uitlander n foreigner, lit. outlander AHD
Ursprache prop.n parent language, esp. a proto-language (i.e. reconstructed from later evidence) LRC
utmost adj extreme, situated at farthest/most distant point AHD/W7
utter adj total, absolute AHD/W7
utter vb.trans to offer for sale AHD/W7
vigorish n charge taken on bets AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: buta prep out, against, without ASD
ūta-werd adj outward, extreme ASD
ūtera adj outer, outmost ASD
Frisian: buten prep out, against, without ASD
Middle Dutch: oor adv/prep out AHD
Dutch: buiten prep out, against, without ASD
uit prep out of TLL
Afrikaans: uitlander n uitlander AHD
Old Saxon: būtan, bōtan prep out, against, without ASD
ūt adv out, beyond ASD
Old High German: būzan adv/conj/prep without, except W7
uralt adj very old ASD
urdanc, urdank n.str.masc idea, invention, fabrication LRC
ūz prep/adv out, beyond W7/ASD
ūzero adj outer, outmost ASD
Middle High German: ūz prep out AHD
German: aus prep out LRC
Ausländer n.masc auslander LRC
ausländisch adj foreign, alien, exotic LRC
ausserhalb prep outside TLL
bauszen prep out, without, against ASD
Garaus n.masc termination W7
ur- pfx primitive W7
Ursprache n.fem Ursprache W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: ór prep from, (out) of; with the material of LRC
útar adv.comp farther out LRC
úti adv outside, out at sea, unsheltered LRC
Icelandic: út adv out, beyond ASD
Danish: ud prep out of TLL
uden prep without TLL
udenfor prep outside TLL
Swedish: ut prep out of TLL
utan prep without TLL
utanför prep outside TLL
utom prep except TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: us prep from, out (of) LRC
ūt adv out, beyond ASD
ūta adv out, without LRC
Middle French: carous adv all out, emptied W7
carrousse adv all out, emptied W7
Latvian: uz prep on, for, upon LRC
Greek: ὕβρις n.fem hubris, outrage, wantonness LS
ὑστερέω vb to come late, fall short LS
ὑστέρησις n.fem need, shortcoming, hysteresis LS
ὕστερον adv later LRC
ὕστερος adj later, subsequent LS
Sanskrit: ud prep up, out W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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