Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯al-, u̯al-d(h)-   'to prevail, be strong'

Semantic Field(s): Strong, Mighty, Powerful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wieldan vb to wield W7
Middle English: abaten vb to abate W7
availen vb to avail W7
countrevailen vb to countervail W7
equivalent adj equivalent W7
prevailen vb to prevail W7
vailen vb to avail W7
valiaunt adj valiant W7
valor n valor W7
value n value W7
welden vb to wield, control W7
English: ambivalence n simultaneous attraction/repulsion AHD/W7
avail vb to serve, be of use/advantage AHD/W7
convalesce vb.intrans to recover health/strength gradually after sickness/weakness AHD/W7
countervail vb to compensate for AHD/W7
equivalent adj equal in force/amount/value AHD/W7
evaluate vb to fix/determine value AHD/W7
invalid adj sickly, suffering from disease/disability AHD/W7
invalid adj without force/foundation in law/fact/truth AHD/W7
oblast n political subdivision of republic in U.S.S.R. AHD/W7
prevail vb.intrans to triumph, gain ascendancy through strength/superiority AHD/W7
vale n farewell, salutation of leave-taking AHD/W7
valence n extract/preparation used in medicine AHD/OED
valetudinarian n person of weak/sickly constitution AHD/W7
valiant adj stouthearted, re: valor AHD/W7
valid adj having legal force/efficacy AHD/W7
valor n strength of mind/spirit, facing danger with firmness/bravery AHD/W7
value n fair return in goods/money/services AHD/W7
wield vb.trans to manage, deal with successfully AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: waltan vb to rule W7
German: Ambivalenz n.fem ambivalence AHD
walten vb to rule LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: vald n.neut power, control LRC
Latin: convalesco, convalescere vb to grow strong W7
invalidus adj weak W7
praevaleo, praevalēre vb to prevail W7
vale be well, fare well W7
valens, valentis adj/vb.ptc being well/strong W7
valentia n vigor AHD
valeō, valēre, valuī vb to be strong, well, able LRC
valesco, valescere vb to grow strong W7
valetudinarius adj infirm, sickly; re: servants W7
valetudo, valetudinis n.fem state of health, sickness W7
validus adj strong W7
Vulgar Latin: valuta n.fem value W7
valutus vb.ptc worthy, valued W7
Late Latin: aequivalens, aequivalentis vb.ptc equivalent W7
aequivaleo, aequivalēre vb to have equal power W7
valentia n.fem power, capacity W7
Medieval Latin: validus adj valid, healthy W7
valor n.masc valor, value W7
Old French: vaillant adj valiant W7
valoir, valer vb to be worthy CDC/W7
Middle French: contrevaloir vb to countervail W7
equivalent adj equivalent W7
vaillant adj valiant W7
valide adj valid, healthy W7
valour n.fem valor W7
French: invalide adj invalid, handicapped W7
Latvian: valdīt, valdu, valdīju vb to lead, rule LRC
valdnieks n.masc governor, leader LRC
Old Church Slavonic: vlasti, vladǫ, vladeši vb to rule LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
2=2nd person
fem=feminine (gender)
imp=imperative (mood)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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