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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. u̯ē̆-, u̯ei-   'we two (dual), we (plural)'

Semantic Field(s): Human Being


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wē pron.1.pl we W7
wit pron.1.du we two W7
Middle English: we pron.1.pl we W7
English: we pron.1.pl I (and you) and any others AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wī pron.1.pl we ASD
Dutch: we pron.1.pl.nom we [atonic form] TLL
wij pron.1.pl.nom we TLL
Old Saxon: wī pron.1.pl we ASD
wit pron.1.du we two ASD
Old High German: wir pron.1.pl we W7
German: wir pron.1.pl we LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: vér pron.1.pl we LRC
vit pron.1.du we two LRC
Icelandic: vér pron.1.pl we ASD
við pron.1.du we two TLL
vit pron.1.du we two ASD
vjér pron.1.pl we TLL
vor pron.1.pl.gen our TLL
Danish: vi pron.1.pl.nom we TLL
vor pron.1.pl.gen our TLL
Swedish: vi pron.1.pl.nom we TLL
vår pron.1.pl.gen our TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: weis pron.1.pl we LRC
wit pron.1.du we two LRC
Sanskrit: vayam pron.1.pl we W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
du=dual (number)
gen=genitive (case)
nom=nominative (case)
pl=plural (number)
1=1st person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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