Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. u̯ebh-   'to plait, weave, waver, move back and forth'

Semantic Field(s): to Plait, to Weave


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ōwef n woof W7
wǣfre adj restless W7
wafian vb to wave (with hands) W7
webbestre n.fem (female) weaver W7
webbian vb.wk to weave, contrive ASD/W7
wefan, wæf, wǣfon, wefen vb.str to weave, contrive W7
wifel n.masc weevil, beetle W7
Middle English: oof n woof W7
wafer n wafer W7
waven vb to wave W7
waveren vb to waver W7
web n web W7
webster n webster W7
weft n weft W7
wevel n weevil W7
weven vb to weave W7
English: goffer vb.trans to flute, crimp AHD/W7
hypha n one of threads in fungus mycelium AHD/W7
wafer n thin crisp cake/cracker AHD/W7
waffle n crisp pancake AHD/W7
wave vb to flutter, move loosely to/fro, float/play/shake in air AHD/W7
waver vb.intrans to vacillate, fluctuate in opinion/allegiance/direction AHD/W7
weave, wove, woven vb.str to make (cloth) by interlacing strands (of yarn) AHD/W7
weave vb.wk.intrans to sway, waver from side to side AHD/W7
web n fabric on/being removed from loom AHD/W7
webster n weaver AHD/W7
weevil n small beetle injurious to nuts/fruit/grain/plants AHD/W7
weft n woof AHD/W7
wobble vb to move/rock/stagger clumsily/unsteadily side-to-side AHD/W7
woof n filling thread/yarn in weaving AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: wafel n waffle W7
wafer n wafer W7
Dutch: weven vb to weave LRC
Old Low German: gold-uuivil n.masc weevil, beetle ASD
Low German: wabbeln vb to wobble W7
Old High German: weban vb to weave W7
wibil n.masc weevil, beetle ASD/W7
German: wabbeln vb to wobble LRC
Waffel n.fem waffle LRC
weben vb to weave LRC
Wiebel n.masc weevil, beetle ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: vefr n web W7
veifa vb to wave W7
veptr n weft, fabric W7
Old Icelandic: vefa vb to weave LRC
Icelandic: tord-yfill n.masc weevil, beetle ASD
vefa vb to weave ASD
Danish: væve vb to weave LRC
Swedish: väva vb to weave LRC
French: gaufrer vb to goffer, emboss, corrugate W7
Homeric Greek: ὑφαίνω vb to weave LRC
Greek: ὑφή n.fem web LRC
Avestan: ubdaēna- adj made of cloth LRC
Sanskrit: ubhnā́ti vb to tie together LRC
vepate vb to tremble W7
Tocharian B: wāp- vb to weave LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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