Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. u̯ei-, u̯ei̯ə- : u̯ī̆-   'to bend, turn, wind'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend, to Turn, to Wind, Wrap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: fiar adj oblique W7
Old English: sǣ-wār n seaware, seaweed ASD
wār n ware OED
wīr n.masc wire, metal thread W7
wīði(n)g n.masc withy ASD/W7
wiððe n.fem withe, cord, thong W7
Middle English: garland n garland W7
iris n iris W7
virole n virl, ferrule W7
wire n wire W7
withe n withe W7
withy n withy W7
English: exine n outer layer of wall of spore/pollen grain AHD
ferrule n strengthening (metal) ring/cap around shaft AHD/W7
garland n wreath, chaplet AHD/W7
inion n projecting point of occipital bone AHD
inosine n an RNA nucleoside AHD
inosite n inositol AHD/W7
inositol n crystalline stereoisomeric cyclic alcohol AHD/W7
inotropic adj affecting muscle contraction AHD
iridaceous adj re: iris plant family AHD/W7
iridium n hard brittle heavy silver-white metal AHD/W7
Iris prop.n gods' messenger (Greek mythology) LRC
iris n rainbow; flower; colored part of eye AHD/W7
iritis n eye (iris) inflammation AHD
seaware n sea wrack used like manure AHD/W7
vise n tool with jaws for holding work AHD/W7
viticulture n grape cultivation AHD/W7
vitta n oil tube in plants of carrot family AHD/W7
ware n seaware, seaweed OED
wire n metal in form of thread/slender rod AHD/W7
withe n slender flexible twig/branch AHD/W7
withy n willow AHD/W7
Withywindle prop.n river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wiþþe n.fem withe, cord, thong ASD
North Frisian: wier n.neut ware OED
Dutch: wier n.neut ware OED
Old High German: wiara n fine gold W7
wīda n withy W7
German: Eingeweide n intestines TLL
Weide n.fem withy LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: veggr n.masc wattle wall KNW
Icelandic: viðja n.fem withe, cord, thong ASD
víðir n withy ASD
vírr n.masc wire ASD
Danish: væg n wall TLL
Swedish: vägg n indoor wall TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: baurgs-waddjus n.masc city wall KGW
inwindiþa n.str.fem injustice LRC
Latin: iris, iridis n.fem rainbow, iris plant W7
Iris n.fem Iris, messenger of Zeus W7
vieo, viēre vb to plait W7
viriola n.fem bracelet W7
vitis n.fem vine W7
vitta n.fem fillet W7
New Latin: iridium n.neut iridium W7
Middle French: garlande n.fem garland W7
virole n.fem ferrule, bracelet W7
vis n.fem screw W7
Lithuanian: įvairùs, įvairì adj various, different LRC
Greek: Ἶρις prop.n.fem Iris LS
ἶρις n.fem iris LS
ἴς n.fem nerve, sinew IEW


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KGW=Gerhard Köbler: Gotisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (1989)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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